Project description:Kadsura spp. in the Schisandraceae family are woody vine plants, which produce edible red fruits that are rich in nutrients and antioxidant activities. Despite their valuable food applications, Kadsura spp. are only able to grow naturally in the forest, and reproduction handled by botanists is still in progress with a very low growth rate. Subsequently, Kadsura spp. were listed as endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in 2011. Two different Kadsura spp., including Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb.) Craib, are mostly found in northern Thailand. These rare, wild fruits are unrecognizable to outsiders, and there have only been limited investigations into its biological properties. This study, therefore, aimed to comparatively investigate the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory activities against the key enzymes involved in diabetes (?-glucosidase and ?-amylase) and Alzheimer's disease (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and beta-secretase 1 (BACE-1)) in different fruit parts (exocarp, mesocarp (edible part), seed, and core) of Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A.C. Sm. and Kadsura heteroclita (Roxb.) Craib. The results suggested that Kadsura spp. extracts were rich in flavonol (quercetin), flavanone (naringenin), anthocyanidins (cyanidin and delphinidin), and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (kuromanin), cyanidin 3-O-galactoside (ideain), cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (keracyanin), and cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside (cyanin)). These flavonoids were found to be responsible for the high antioxidant activities and key enzyme inhibitions detected in Kadsura spp. extracts. The findings of the present study can support further development of Kadsura spp. as a potential source of phenolics and anti-oxidative agents with health benefits against diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Besides, exocarp and the core of Kadsura spp. exhibited higher phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and key enzyme inhibitory activities compared to the mesocarp and seeds, respectively. This information can promote the use of fruit parts other than the edible mesocarp for future food applications using Kadsura spp. rather than these being wasted.
Project description:Piper kadsura is a vine-like medicinal plant which is widely used in clinical treatment. However, P. kadsura is often substituted by other materials in the markets, thereby causing health risks. In this study, 38 P. kadsura samples and eight sequences from GenBank, including a closely-related species and common adulterants were collected. This study aimed to identify an effective DNA barcode from four popular DNA loci for P. kadsura authentication. The success rates of PCR amplification, sequencing, and sequence acquisition of matK were 10.5%, 75%, and 7.9%, respectively; for rbcL they were 89.5%, 8.8%, and 7.9%, respectively; ITS2 rates were 86.8%, 3.0%, and 2.6%, respectively, while for psbA-trnH they were all 100%, which is much higher than for the other three loci. The sequences were aligned using Muscle, genetic distances were computed using MEGA 5.2.2, and barcoding gap was performed using TAXON DNA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that psbA-trnH could clearly distinguish P. kadsura from its closely related species and the common adulterant. psbA-trnH was then used to evaluate the fake proportions of P. kadsura. Results showed that 18.4% of P. kadsura samples were fake, indicating that adulterant species exist in the Chinese markets. Two-dimensional DNA barcoding imaging of P. kadsura was conducted, which was beneficial to the management of P. kadsura. We conclude that the psbA-trnH region is a powerful tool for P. kadsura identification and supervision in the current medicine markets.
Project description:<i>Kadsura coccinea</i> (Lem.) A.C.Sm. in the Schisandraceae family is woody vine plant, which produce edible red fruits that are rich in nutrients and antioxidant activities. Herein, we assembled the complete chloroplast genome of <i>Kadsura coccinea</i> by next-generation sequencing technologies. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of <i>Kadsura coccinea</i> is 145,413 base pairs (bp) in length, including a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRs, 16,431 bp), one large single-copy region (LSC, 94,511 bp), one small single-copy region (SSC, 18,040 bp). Besides, the complete chloroplast genome contains 126 genes in total, including 82 protein-coding genes, 35 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that <i>Kadsura coccinea</i> has the closest relationship with <i>Kadsura longipedunculata</i>. Our study lay a foundation for further research of <i>Kadsura coccinea</i>.
Project description:The first complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of <i>Kadsura ananosma</i> was determined from Illumina HiSeq pair-end sequencing data in this study. The cpDNA is 145,903 bp in length, contains a large single-copy region (LSC) of 94,757 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 18,042 bp, which were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IR) regions of 16,552 bp. The genome contains 125 genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 35 transfer RNA genes. Further phylogenomic analysis showed that <i>K. ananosma</i> and <i>Kadsura coccinea</i> clustered in a clade in Schisandraceae family.
Project description:The first complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of <i>Kadsura interior</i> was determined from Illumina HiSeq pair-end sequencing data in this study. The cpDNA is 153,201 bp in length, contains a large single-copy region (LSC) of 85,774 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 18,077 bp, which were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IR) regions of 24,673 bp each. The genome contains 129 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 transfer RNA genes. The overall GC content of the whole genome is 39.6%, . The further phylogenomic analysis showed that <i>K. interior</i> and <i>Kadsura coccinea</i> clustered in a clade in Schisandraceae family.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Resin is a defence against herbivores and a floral reward in a few African and South American species whose bee pollinators collect it for nest construction. Here we describe a new role for floral resin from the Asian genus Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Kadsura tepals tightly cover a globe formed by carpels (in females) or near-fused stamens with fleshy connectives (in male flowers of most, but not all species).<h4>Methods</h4>We carried out field observations at four sites in China and used pollinator behavioural assays, chemical analyses and time-calibrated insect and plant phylogenies to investigate the specificity of the interactions and their relationship to floral structure.<h4>Key results</h4>Nocturnal resin midges ( Resseliella , Cecidomyiidae) walk around on the flowers' sexual organs to oviposit, thereby transferring pollen and wounding tissues. The larvae then develop in resin-filled chambers. Male and female floral scents are dominated by ?-pinene, while the resinous exudate is dominated by caryophyllene. As revealed by barcoding of multiple midge larvae per flower species, the mutualisms are species specific and appear to have evolved over the past 6-9 million years.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Resin feeding, not pollen or ovule feeding, by midge larvae explains the abundant Kadsura exudates, highlighting the poorly known world of nocturnal flower-fly interactions.
Project description:The first complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of <i>Kadsura heteroclita</i> was determined from Illumina HiSeq pair-end sequencing data in this study. The cpDNA is 153,289 bp in length, contains a large single copy region (LSC) of 85,774 bp and a small single copy region (SSC) of 18,201 bp, which were separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IR) regions of 24,657 bp. The genome contains 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 transfer RNA genes. Further phylogenomic analysis showed that <i>K. heteroclita and K. interior</i> clustered in a clade in Schisandraceae family.