Project description:The pathway of rubber (poly [cis-1,4-isoprene]) catabolism is well documented for Gram-positive rubber degraders but only little information exists for Gram-negative species. The first documented potent rubber degrading Gram-negative strain is Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y that uses extracellular rubber oxygenases for the initial cleavage of the polyisoprene molecule. However, neither the exact phylogenetic position of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y nor the catabolic pathway of the primary polyisoprene cleavage products have been investigated. In this contribution, we started to address both these issues by a comprehensive taxonomic characterization and by the analysis of the draft genome sequence of strain 35Y. Evaluation of the 16S rRNA gene sequence pointed to a borderline taxonomic position of strain 35Y as a novel species of the genus Steroidobacter. Further, substantial differences in the genotypic properties of strain 35Y and the members of the genus Steroidobacter, including average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), resolved the taxonomic position of strain 35Y and suggested its positioning as a novel species of the genus Steroidobacter. This was further confirmed by comparative analysis of physiological and biochemical features of strain 35Y with other members of the genus Steroidobacter. Thus, we conclude that strain 35Y represents a novel species of the genus Steroidobacter, for which we propose the designation Steroidobacter cummioxidans sp. nov., strain 35YT. A comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of S. cummioxidans strain 35Y revealed similarities but also substantial differences to rubber degrading Gram-positive counterparts. In particular, the putative transporters for the uptake of polyisoprene cleavage products differ from Gram-positive rubber degrading species. The draft genome sequence of S. cummioxidans strain 35Y will be useful for researchers to experimentally verify the predicted similarities and differences in the pathways of polyisoprene catabolism in Gram-positive and Gram-negative rubber degrading species.
Project description:An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from soil collected in a vegetable cropping field. The growth of this isolate was enhanced by supplying culture supernatants of bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the novel bacterium, strain KA5-B(T), belonged to the genus Steroidobacter in Gammaproteobacteria, but differed from its closest relative, Steroidobacter denitrificans FS(T), at the species level with 96.5% similarity. Strain KA5-B(T) was strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, and had a straight to slightly curved rod shape. Cytochrome oxidase and catalase activities were positive. The strain grew on media containing culture supernatants in a temperature range of 15-37°C and between pH 4.5 and 9.0, with optimal growth occurring at 30°C and pH 6.0-8.0. No growth occurred at 10 or 42°C or at NaCl concentrations more than 3% (w/v). The main cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C16:1?7c, and iso-C17:1?9c. The main quinone was ubiquinone-8 and DNA G+C content was 62.9 mol%. In contrast, strain FS(T) was motile, did not grow on the agar plate, and its dominant cellular fatty acids were C15:0 and C17:1?8c. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, strain KA5-B(T) (JCM 18477(T) = KCTC 32107(T)) represents a novel species in genus Steroidobacter, for which the name Steroidobacter agariperforans sp. nov. is proposed.
Project description:The environment of plant rhizosphere soil differs from that of non-rhizosphere soil due to the secretion of mucilage polysaccharides from the roots. This environment is regarded as one of the preferential habitats for agar-degrading bacteria. In a previous study, agar-degrading Steroidobacter agariperforans KA5-B<sup>T</sup> was isolated from agar-enriched agricultural soil using diffusible metabolites from Rhizobiales bacteria. Based on the hypothesis that similar characteristic bacteria still exist in the rhizosphere, isolation was performed using rhizosphere soils. Agar-degrading SA29-B<sup>T</sup> and YU21-B were isolated from onion and soybean rhizosphere soils. The 16S rRNA genes of these strains showed ≥98.7% identities with the most closely related strain KA5-B<sup>T</sup>. However, differences were noted in polysaccharide utilization, and average nucleotide identities were <95-96% against strain KA5-B<sup>T</sup>, indicating that they are different species from S. agariperforans KA5-B<sup>T</sup>. To investigate the distribution of bacterial sequences affiliated with novel strains, a primer set was designed and a meta-analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was performed. Sequences were widely distributed in rhizospheres throughout Japan, but varied in plant- and region-dependent manners. Regarding phenotypic characterization, distinguishable features were observed in growth temperatures, pH, and dominant fatty acids. SA29-B<sup>T</sup> and YU21-B grew at 15-40°C and pH 6.0-12 and contained C<sub>16:0</sub> as the dominant cell fatty acid, whereas KA5-B<sup>T</sup> showed no growth at 40°C and pH 12 and contained a moderate amount of C<sub>16:0</sub>. Based on these characteristics, SA29-B<sup>T</sup> (JCM 333368<sup>T</sup>=KCTC 72223<sup>T</sup>) and YU21-B (JCM 333367=KCTC 72222) represent novel species in the genus Steroidobacter, for which the name Steroidobacter agaridevorans sp. nov. is proposed.
Project description:The genome sequence of Rhodotorula paludigena strain CM33, an oleaginous yeast isolated from castor bean (Ricinus sp.) in Thailand, is reported here. Genome sequencing and assembly yielded 20,657,327 bases with a 64.3% G+C content.