Project description:Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Romania were placed into an existing phylogeographic framework. Isolates from Italy were assigned to phylogenetic group B.FTNF002-00; the other isolates, to group B.13. Most F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Europe belong to these 2 geographically segregated groups.
Project description:Comparative genome hybridization of the Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica populations have shown that genome content is highly conserved, with relatively few genes in the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis genome being absent in other F. tularensis subspecies. To determine if organization of the genome differs between global populations of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, we have used paired-end sequence mapping (PESM) to identify regions of the genome where synteny is broken. The PESM approach compares the physical distances between paired-end sequencing reads of a library of a wild-type reference F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain to the predicted lengths between the reads based on map coordinates of two different F. tularensis genome sequences. A total of 17 different continuous regions were identified in the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica genome (CR(holar)(c)(tica)) which are noncontiguous in the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis genome. Six of the 17 different CR(holarctica) are positioned as adjacent pairs in the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis genome sequence but are translocated in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, implying that their arrangements are ancestral in F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and derived in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica. PCR analysis of the CR(holarctica) in 88 additional F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates showed that the arrangements of the CR(holarctica) are highly conserved, particularly in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica, consistent with the hypothesis that global populations of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica have recently experienced a periodic selection event or they have emerged from a recent clonal expansion. Two unique F. tularensis subsp. tularensis-like strains were also observed which likely are derived from evolutionary intermediates and may represent a new taxonomic unit.
Project description:Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica is a select agent causing life-threatening tularemia. It has been isolated from humans and animals, mainly lagomorphs and rodents, rarely other wild carnivore species. Increasing numbers of human tularemia cases have been reported during the last 5 years in Switzerland. Here we report the first isolation of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica from a domestic cat in Europe and compare its genome sequence with other Swiss isolates. The cat isolate shows a close phylogenetic relationship with a contemporary hare isolate from close geographic proximity, indicating a possible epidemiological link.
Project description:The bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis was recently renewed as a tier-one select agent. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) are of clinical relevance. Here, we report the complete genome of a virulent F. tularensis type B strain and describe its usefulness in comparative genomics.
Project description:Francisella (F.) tularensis is a highly virulent, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we generated, analyzed and characterized a high quality circular genome sequence of the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain 12T0050 that caused fatal tularemia in a hare. Besides the genomic structure, we focused on the analysis of oriC, unique to the Francisella genus and regulating replication in and outside hosts and the first report on genomic DNA methylation of a Francisella strain. The high quality genome was used to establish and evaluate a diagnostic whole genome sequencing pipeline. A genotyping strategy for F. tularensis was developed using various bioinformatics tools for genotyping. Additionally, whole genome sequences of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates isolated in the years 2008-2015 in Germany were generated. A phylogenetic analysis allowed to determine the genetic relatedness of these isolates and confirmed the highly conserved nature of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica.
Project description:Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious bacterium, is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. It is widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, including Japan. Here, we have determined the complete genome sequences of two strains of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica bv. japonica isolated from hares in 2008 and 2009.
Project description:Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen for many animals causing the infectious disease, tularemia. Whereas F. tularensis subsp. holarctica is highly pathogenic for humans, F. novicida is almost avirulent for humans, but virulent for mice. In order to compare metabolic fluxes between these strains, we performed 13C-labeling experiments with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica wild type (beaver isolate), F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain LVS, or F. novicida strain U112 in complex media containing either [U-13C6]glucose, [1,2-13C2]glucose, [U-13C3]serine, or [U-13C3]glycerol. GC/MS-based isotopolog profiling of amino acids, polysaccharide-derived glucose, free fructose, amino sugars derived from the cell wall, fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, succinate and malate revealed uptake and metabolic usage of all tracers under the experimental conditions with glucose being the major carbon source for all strains under study. The labeling patterns of the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica wild type were highly similar to those of the LVS strain, but showed remarkable differences to the labeling profiles of the metabolites from the F. novicida strain. Glucose was directly used for polysaccharide and cell wall biosynthesis with higher rates in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica or metabolized, with higher rates in F. novicida, via glycolysis and the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Catabolic turnover of glucose via gluconeogenesis was also observed. In all strains, Ala was mainly synthesized from pyruvate, although no pathway from pyruvate to Ala is annotated in the genomes of F. tularensis and F. novicida. Glycerol efficiently served as a gluconeogenetic substrate in F. novicida, but only less in the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains. In any of the studied strains, serine did not serve as a major substrate and was not significantly used for gluconeogenesis under the experimental conditions. Rather, it was only utilized, at low rates, in downstream metabolic processes, e.g., via acetyl-CoA in the citrate cycle and for fatty acid biosynthesis, especially in the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains. In summary, the data reflect differential metabolite fluxes in F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and F. novicida suggesting that the different utilization of substrates could be related to host specificity and virulence of Francisella.
Project description:Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica is widely disseminated in North America and the boreal and temperate regions of the Eurasian continent. Comparative genomic analyses identified a 1.59-kb genomic deletion specific to F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Spain and France. Phylogenetic analysis of strains carrying this deletion by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strains comprise a highly related set of genotypes, implying that these strains were recently introduced or recently emerged by clonal expansion in France and the Iberian Peninsula.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain A271_1, isolated from a Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in 2012 in the Berlin/Brandenburg region, Germany.
Project description:Tularemia is caused by two subspecies of Francisella tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B). F. tularensis subsp. tularensis is further subdivided into two genetically distinct populations (A.I and A.II) that differ with respect to geographical location, anatomical source of recovered isolates, and disease outcome. Using two human clinical isolates, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed to identify 13 genomic regions of difference between A.I and A.II strains. Two PCR assays, one to identify A.I and A.II as well as to discriminate between F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and F. novicida and another specific for A.I, were developed. This is the first report to identify and characterize conserved genomic differences between A.I and A.II.