Project description:During the last years probiotics gained the attention of clinicians for their use in the prevention and treatment of multiple diseases. Probiotics main mechanisms of action include enhanced mucosal barrier function, direct antagonism with pathogens, inhibition of bacterial adherence and invasion capacity in the intestinal epithelium, boosting of the immune system and regulation of the central nervous system. It is accepted that there is a mutual communication between the gut microbiota and the liver, the so-called "microbiota-gut-liver axis" as well as a reciprocal communication between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system through the "microbiota-gut-brain axis." Moreover, recently the "gut-lung axis" in bacterial and viral infections is considerably discussed for bacterial and viral infections, as the intestinal microbiota amplifies the alveolar macrophage activity having a protective role in the host defense against pneumonia. The importance of the normal human intestinal microbiota is recognized in the preservation of health. Disease states such as, infections, autoimmune conditions, allergy and other may occur when the intestinal balance is disturbed. Probiotics seem to be a promising approach to prevent and even reduce the symptoms of such clinical states as an adjuvant therapy by preserving the balance of the normal intestinal microbiota and improving the immune system. The present review states globally all different disorders in which probiotics can be given. To date, Stronger data in favor of their clinical use are provided in the prevention of gastrointestinal disorders, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, allergy and respiratory infections. We hereby discuss the role of probiotics in the reduction of the respiratory infection symptoms and we focus on the possibility to use them as an adjuvant to the therapeutic approach of the pandemic COVID-19. Nevertheless, it is accepted by the scientific community that more clinical studies should be undertaken in large samples of diseased populations so that the assessment of their therapeutic potential provide us with strong evidence for their efficacy and safety in clinical use.
Project description:Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in health and disease. Alteration in its healthy homeostasis may result in the development of numerous liver disorders including complications of liver cirrhosis. On the other hand, restoration and modulation of intestinal flora through the use of probiotics is potentially an emerging therapeutic strategy. There is mounting evidence that probiotics are effective in the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy, as well as in the prevention of recurrence of encephalopathy. The beneficial effect of probiotics also extends to liver function in cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and alcoholic liver disease. On the other hand, data associating probiotics and portal hypertension is scanty and conflicting. Probiotic therapy has also not been shown to prevent primary or secondary spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Larger clinical studies are required before probiotics can be recommended as a treatment modality in liver diseases.
Project description:Among athletes, nutrition plays a key role, supporting training, performance, and post-exercise recovery. Research has primarily focused on the effects of diet in support of an athletic physique; however, the role played by intestinal microbiota has been much neglected. Emerging evidence has shown an association between the intestinal microbiota composition and physical activity, suggesting that modifications in the gut microbiota composition may contribute to physical performance of the host. Probiotics represent a potential means for beneficially influencing the gut microbiota composition/function but can also impact the overall health of the host. In this review, we provide an overview of the existing studies that have examined the reciprocal interactions between physical activity and gut microbiota. We further evaluate the clinical evidence that supports the effects of probiotics on physical performance, post-exercise recovery, and cognitive outcomes among athletes. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms of action through which probiotics affect exercise outcomes. In summary, beneficial microbes, including probiotics, may promote health in athletes and enhance physical performance and exercise capacity. Furthermore, high-quality clinical studies, with adequate power, remain necessary to uncover the roles that are played by gut microbiota populations and probiotics in physical performance and the modes of action behind their potential benefits.
Project description:Chemotherapy, targeting not only malignant but also healthy cells, causes many undesirable side effects in cancer patients. Due to this fact, long-term cancer survivors often suffer from late effects, including cognitive impairment and cardiovascular toxicity. Chemotherapy damages the intestinal mucosa and heavily disrupts the gut ecosystem, leading to gastrointestinal toxicity. Animal models and clinical studies have revealed the associations between intestinal dysbiosis and depression, anxiety, pain, impaired cognitive functions, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a possible link between chemotherapy-induced gut microbiota disruption and late effects in cancer survivors has been proposed. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of preclinical and clinical findings regarding the emerging role of the microbiome and the microbiota-gut-brain axis in chemotherapy-related late effects affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and heart functions. Importantly, we provide an overview of clinical trials evaluating the relationship between the gut microbiome and cancer survivorship. Moreover, the beneficial effects of probiotics in experimental models and non-cancer patients with neurocognitive disorders and cardiovascular diseases as well as several studies on microbiota modulations via probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation in cancer patients are discussed.
Project description:Cryptosporidiosis, a leading cause of diarrhea among infants, is caused by apicomplexan parasites classified in the genus Cryptosporidium The lack of effective drugs is motivating research to develop alternative treatments. With this aim, the impact of probiotics on the course of cryptosporidiosis was investigated. The native intestinal microbiota of specific pathogen-free immunosuppressed mice was initially depleted with orally administered antibiotics. A commercially available probiotic product intended for human consumption was subsequently added to the drinking water. Mice were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. On average, mice treated with the probiotic product developed more severe infections. The probiotics significantly altered the fecal microbiota, but no direct association between ingestion of probiotic bacteria and their abundance in fecal microbiota was observed. These results suggest that probiotics indirectly altered the intestinal microenvironment or the intestinal epithelium in a way that favored proliferation of C. parvum IMPORTANCE The results of our study show that C. parvum responded to changes in the intestinal microenvironment induced by a nutritional supplement. This outcome paves the way for research to identify nutritional interventions aimed at limiting the impact of cryptosporidiosis.
Project description:To investigate the impact of microbes within the living environment on the gut microbiota of adults, we raised three groups of BALB/c mice from 3-4 weeks age in the same specific-pathogen-free animal room for 8 weeks. The control group lived in cages with sterilized bedding (pelletized cardboard), the probiotics group had three probiotics added to the sterilized bedding, and the intestinal microbes (IM) group had the intestinal microbes of a healthy goat added to the bedding. All other variables such as diet, age, genetic background, physiological status, original gut microbiota, and living room were controlled. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we observed that the control and probiotics groups had similar diversity and richness of gut microbiota. The two groups had significantly lower diversity than the IM group. We also observed that the IM group had a specific structure of gut microbial community compared with the control and probiotics groups. However, the dominate bacteria changed slightly upon exposure to intestinal microbes, and the abundance of the non-dominate species changed significantly. In addition, exposure to intestinal microbes inhibited DNFB-induced elevation of serum IgE levels. Our results provide new evidence in support of the microflora and hygiene hypotheses.
Project description:Obesity is becoming a pandemic and percutaneous electrical stimulation (PENS) of dermatome T6 has been demonstrated to reduce stomach motility and appetite, allowing greater weight loss than isolated hypocaloric diets. However, modulation of intestinal microbiota could improve this effect and control cardiovascular risk factors. Our objective was to test whether addition of probiotics could improve weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors in obese subjects after PENS and a hypocaloric diet. A pilot prospective study was performed in patients (n = 20) with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2. Half of them underwent ten weeks of PENS in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet (PENS-Diet), and the other half was treated with a PENS-Diet plus multistrain probiotics (L. plantarum LP115, B. brevis B3, and L. acidophilus LA14) administration. Fecal samples were obtained before and after interventions. The weight loss and changes in blood pressure, glycemic and lipid profile, and in gut microbiota were investigated. Weight loss was significantly higher (16.2 vs. 11.1 kg, p = 0.022), whereas glycated hemoglobin and triglycerides were lower (-0.46 vs. -0.05%, p = 0.032, and -47.0 vs. -8.5 mg/dL, p = 0.002, respectively) in patients receiving PENS-Diet + probiotics compared with those with a PENS-Diet. Moreover, an enrichment of anti-obesogenic bacteria, including Bifidobacterium spp, Akkermansia spp, Prevotella spp, and the attenuation of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio were noted in fecal samples after probiotics administration. In obese patients, the addition of probiotics to a PENS intervention under a hypocaloric diet could further improve weight loss and glycemic and lipid profile in parallel to the amelioration of gut dysbiosis.
Project description:Intestinal epithelial cells are major producers of antimicrobial proteins, which play an important role in innate immunity. In addition to defensins, the Ribonuclease A superfamily includes important antimicrobial proteins involved in host-defense mechanisms in vertebrates. Angiogenin-4 (Ang4), a member of this RNase superfamily, has been demonstrated to be secreted by Paneth cells in mice. We have successfully cloned and characterized a new chicken gene (chAng4), found for the first time in a nonmammalian species, from intestinal epithelial and lymphoid cells. Characterization of chAng4 revealed 99% nucleotide and 97% amino acid sequence homology to mouse Ang4. Similar functional regions were identified, suggesting a role in innate immunity and regulation of gut microbiota. Furthermore, the mRNA expression pattern of chAng4 was studied in broilers in the presence or absence of beneficial bacteria (probiotics) and organic acids. The results showed that one-day-old chickens expressed low levels of Ang4 in almost all the evaluated tissues (crop, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecal tonsils), except in the bursa of Fabricius that presented the highest expression level. The addition of probiotics and organic acids for either 7 or 14 consecutive days demonstrated a direct effect of probiotics and organic acids on chAng4 expression; moreover, broilers receiving probiotics and organic acids for only 7 D showed higher levels of chAng4 expression compared with those treated for 14 D. Broilers without treatment had a constant high level of expression in cecal tonsils and bursa. In conclusion, we were able to identify and characterize a new antimicrobial gene in chickens (chAng4) throughout the gastrointestinal tract. chAng4 mRNA gene expression was associated with the presence of naturally occurring and supplemented (probiotic) bacteria. The encoded protein might have a potential bactericidal effect against intestinal nonpathogenic and pathogenic microbes, modulating the intestinal microbiota and the innate immunity, and thereby may help minimize the use of antibiotics in poultry feed.
Project description:Intestinal inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). Administration of probiotics can reduce intestinal inflammation and the incidence of pulmonary exacerbations. We investigated the composition of intestinal microbiota in children with CF and analyzed its relationship with intestinal inflammation. We also investigated the microflora structure before and after Lactobacillus GG (LGG) administration in children with CF with and without antibiotic treatment.The intestinal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Intestinal inflammation was assessed by measuring fecal calprotectin (CLP) and rectal nitric oxide (rNO) production in children with CF as compared with healthy controls. We then carried out a small double-blind randomized clinical trial with LGG.Twenty-two children with CF children were enrolled in the study (median age, 7 years; range, 2-9 years). Fecal CLP and rNO levels were higher in children with CF than in healthy controls (184±146 µg/g vs. 52±46 µg/g; 18±15 vs. 2.6±1.2 µmol/L NO2 (-), respectively; P<0.01). Compared with healthy controls, children with CF had significantly different intestinal microbial core structures. The levels of Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were reduced in children with CF. A similar but more extreme pattern was observed in children with CF who were taking antibiotics. LGG administration reduced fecal CLP and partially restored intestinal microbiota. There was a significant correlation between reduced microbial richness and intestinal inflammation.CF causes qualitative and quantitative changes in intestinal microbiota, which may represent a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of CF. Administration of probiotics restored gut microbiota, supporting the efficacy of probiotics in reducing intestinal inflammation and pulmonary exacerbations.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01961661.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children's microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children's antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2-7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676.