Project description:Hemp seed flour represents a potential ingredient for protein enrichment of gluten-free bakery products, the nutritional value of which could be further increased by fermentation with sourdough or with beneficial lactic acid bacteria strains. In this study, a metabolomic approach was used to evaluate the effect of hemp seed flour addition and sourdough fermentation on the production of flavoring and health-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a gluten-free bread. Multivariate analysis of VOCs provided an in-depth description of the effects of hemp seed flour addition and sourdough fermentation on flavoring and bioactive compounds. In particular, an increased concentration of antimicrobial compounds, a larger spectrum of bioactive VOCs and a typical flavoring profile was evidenced in comparison to standard products. Furthermore, an increase of fermentation metabolites was observed in comparison to a standard dough, relating to abundances of 2-butanone-3-hydroxy, acetic acid, ethanol, and 1,4-butanediol. This study provides new insights on the evolution of flavoring and bioactive hemp seed flour constituents during sourdough fermentation, evidencing their retention in baked goods, and describes a new approach that could guide the formulation of innovative, fermented food with enhanced nutritional value.
Project description:In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley ?-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley ?-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples.
Project description:To determine if whole-grain (WG) flour with resistant starch (RS) will produce greater fermentation than isolated RS in obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, and whether greater fermentation results in different microbiota, reduced abdominal fat, and increased insulin sensitivity.This study utilized four groups fed diets made with either isolated digestible control starch, WG control flour (6.9% RS), isolated RS-rich corn starch (25% RS), or WG corn flour (25% RS). ZDF rats fermented RS and RS-rich WG flour to greatest extent among groups. High-RS groups had increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) active. Feeding isolated RS showed greater Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes phyla among groups, and rats consuming low RS diets possessed more bacteria in Lactobacillus genus. However, no differences in abdominal fat were observed, but rats with isolated RS had greatest insulin sensitivity among groups.Data demonstrated ZDF rats (i) possess a microbiota that fermented RS, and (ii) WG high-RS fermented better than purified RS. However, fermentation and microbiota changes did not translate into reduced abdominal fat. The defective leptin receptor may limit ZDF rats from responding to increased GLP-1 and different microbiota for reducing abdominal fat, but did not prevent improved insulin sensitivity.
Project description:Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary global food cereal. However, when compared to wheat, rice has poor food processing qualities. Dough that is made from rice flour has low viscoelasticity because rice seed lacks storage proteins that are comparable to gluten protein from wheat. Thus, current research efforts aim to improve rice flour processing qualities through the transgenic expression of viscoelastic proteins in rice seeds. In this study, we characterized the transgenic expression of wheat glutenin subunits in rice seeds. The two genes 1Dx5_KK and 1Dy10_JK, which both encode wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits that confer high dough elasticity, were cloned from Korean wheat cultivars KeumKang and JoKyung, respectively. These genes were inserted into binary vectors under the control of the rice endosperm-specific Glu-B1 promoter and were expressed in the high-amylose Korean rice cultivar Koami (Oryza sativa L.). Individual expression of both glutenin subunits was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses performed using T? generation of transgenic rice seeds. The subcellular localization of 1Dx5_KK and 1Dy10_JK in the rice seed endosperm was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis, indicating that the wheat glutenin subunits accumulate in protein body-II and novel protein body types in the rice seed. These results contribute to our understanding of engineered seed storage proteins in rice.
Project description:In vitro gut modeling provides a useful platform for a fast and reproducible assessment of treatment-related changes. Currently, pig intestinal fermentation models are mainly batch models with important inherent limitations. In this study we developed a novel in vitro continuous fermentation model, mimicking the porcine proximal colon, which we validated during 54 days of fermentation. This model, based on our recent PolyFermS design, allows comparing different treatment effects on the same microbiota. It is composed of a first-stage inoculum reactor seeded with immobilized fecal swine microbiota and used to constantly inoculate (10% v/v) five second-stage reactors, with all reactors fed with fresh nutritive chyme medium and set to mimic the swine proximal colon. Reactor effluents were analyzed for metabolite concentrations and bacterial composition by HPLC and quantitative PCR, and microbial diversity was assessed by 454 pyrosequencing. The novel PolyFermS featured stable microbial composition, diversity and metabolite production, consistent with bacterial activity reported for swine proximal colon in vivo. The constant inoculation provided by the inoculum reactor generated reproducible microbial ecosystems in all second-stage reactors, allowing the simultaneous investigation and direct comparison of different treatments on the same porcine gut microbiota. Our data demonstrate the unique features of this novel PolyFermS design for the swine proximal colon. The model provides a tool for efficient, reproducible and cost-effective screening of environmental factors, such as dietary additives, on pig colonic fermentation.
Project description:To investigate the effect of flour and starch of the Indonesian native tuber "taro" on the composition and activity of the gut microbiota in diabetic rats, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were fed normal chow (AIN), or AIN in which corn starch was replaced by either taro flour or purified taro starch for 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks, and the composition of microbial communities was measured using 16S rRNA sequencing, while SCFAs were measured using ion chromatography. Bodyweight declined upon DM induction with STZ. Feeding taro starch led to a lower reduction in bodyweight than feeding taro starch, but this was only significant for taro starch in weeks 2, 3, and 4 (p = 0.02, p = 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). Both taro starch and taro flour induced changes in the gut microbiota composition compared to AIN, which were different for taro flour and taro starch. Bifidobacterium, Sutterella, and Prevotella were markers for taro flour feeding, while Anaerostipes was a marker for taro starch feeding. Induction of diabetes also led to changes in the microbiota composition. Random Forest correctly predicted for 16 of 18 samples whether rats were diabetic or not and correctly predicted 6 of 12 microbiota samples belonging to either taro flour- or taro starch-fed groups, indicating also some significant overlap in the substrate, as expected. Taro starch and taro flour both led to a significant increase in the fecal concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
Project description:The blackberry seed flour was cold-extracted using 50% acetone and examined for its phytochemical composition and health-beneficial properties including in vitro gut microbiota modulatory, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative capacities. Among identified thirteen components of blackberry seed flour extract through UHPLC-MS analysis, sanguiin H6 was the primary component and followed by ellagic acid and pedunculagin. For health-beneficial properties, the blackberry seed flour extract increased the total number of gut bacteria and shifted the abundance of specific bacterial phylum, family, or genus. The extract had RDSC, ORAC, HOSC, and ABTS•+ scavenging capacities of 362, 304, 2,531, and 267 ?mol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g, respectively. In addition, the blackberry seed flour extract showed capacities for anti-inflammation and antiproliferation by suppressing LPS induced IL-1? mRNA expressions in the cultured J774A.1 mouse macrophages and the proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells. The results suggest potential health benefits and further utilization of blackberry seed flour as functional foods.
Project description:This study was conducted to determine whether differences in fiber fermentation in fiber-rich feed ingredients exist and to assess relationship between fiber fermentation and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in pig. Castrated males (barrows) were allotted randomly to six diets formulated with different amounts of wheat bran (WB), corn bran (CB), sugar beet pulp (SBP), oat bran (OB), soybean hulls (SH) or rice bran (RB). The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) for OB and SH diets was greater (P < 0.05) than for the other diets. The fermentation of total dietary fiber (TDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) in the hindgut were greater (P < 0.05) for SBP and SH diets than for WB, CB, OB and RB diets. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) values of all fiber components in SBP, SH and OB diets were greater (P < 0.05) than for WB, CB and RB diets. The concentration of VFA in feces was positively correlated with the ATTD of IDF and cellulose, and ATTD of IDF is the best factor for predicting fecal VFA concentration. Overall, dietary fiber source affected fermentable characteristics of fiber components in the different digestive segments of pig intestine.
Project description:Quinoa, a nutritional grain, can be used as an ingredient in gluten-free sourdoughs. This study characterizes quinoa flour spontaneous fermentation with emphasis in the isolation of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producer bacteria. Real, red and black grains were studied. Dough yield, microbiota composition and fermentation biochemistry were determined for a total of 36 quinoa flour fermentations. The fermentation biochemistry was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, pH measurement and titratable acidity. Changes in the microbiota were monitored by plating on deMann Rogosa and Sharp 5 agar (MRS5) and yeast and mold agar (YMA) plates and with metagenetic analysis. The ability to produce exopolysaccharides was screened in selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates. Production of organic acids in the spontaneous fermentation dropped the pH to 4.0 ± 0.3. The community of presumptive LAB reached 8.37 ± 0.01 log colony forming units (CFU)/mL by day 8 of back-slopped fermentations. The microbiota was composed of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Pediococcus and Weissella. P. pentosaceous, L. citreum and W. cibaria were able to produce EPS in a starch-rich medium. P. pentosaceous showed higher exopolysaccharide yield, rapid acidifying kinetics and was able to drop the dough broth pH to values below 4.0 and a positive fermentation quotient after 24 h of incubation. Therefore, the bacterium might be a potential candidate for quinoa sourdough production.
Project description:This study was conducted to explore the in vitro fermentation characteristics for different ratios of soluble to insoluble dietary fiber in pig fecal microbiota. The fermentation substrates consisted of inulin and a non-starch polysaccharide mixture and were divided into five groups according to different soluble dietary fiber (SDF) to insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) ratios (SDF 25, 50, 75, and 100%). With the increased SDF ratio, the total gas production increased, and the pH in the substrate decreased as the fermentation proceeded. The concentrations of lactic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid increased in the high SDF ratio group, whereas the concentrations of propionic acid and butyric acid increased in the low SDF ratio group. The genera Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Ruminococcaceae_NK4A214_group, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group were enriched in the high SDF ratio group. Correlation analysis indicated that these differential bacteria had the potential to degrade polysaccharides. These results revealed that high SDF ratios could stimulate the proliferation of fibrolytic bacteria, which in turn degrade fibers to produce organic acids and monosaccharides. Collectively, these findings add to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for interaction between SDF and intestinal microbiota and provide new ideas for the rational use of dietary fiber.