Project description:BACKGROUND: From a common ancestor with animals, the earliest fungi inherited flagellated zoospores for dispersal in water. Terrestrial fungi lost all flagellated stages and reproduce instead with nonmotile spores. Olpidium virulentus (= Olpidium brassicae), a unicellular fungus parasitizing vascular plant root cells, seemed anomalous. Although Olpidium produces zoospores, in previous phylogenetic studies it appeared nested among the terrestrial fungi. Its position was based mainly on ribosomal gene sequences and was not strongly supported. Our goal in this study was to use amino acid sequences from four genes to reconstruct the branching order of the early-diverging fungi with particular emphasis on the position of Olpidium. RESULTS: We concatenated sequences from the Ef-2, RPB1, RPB2 and actin loci for maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. In the resulting trees, Olpidium virulentus, O. bornovanus and non-flagellated terrestrial fungi formed a strongly supported clade. Topology tests rejected monophyly of the Olpidium species with any other clades of flagellated fungi. Placing Olpidium at the base of terrestrial fungi was also rejected. Within the terrestrial fungi, Olpidium formed a monophyletic group with the taxa traditionally classified in the phylum Zygomycota. Within Zygomycota, Mucoromycotina was robustly monophyletic. Although without bootstrap support, Monoblepharidomycetes, a small class of zoosporic fungi, diverged from the basal node in Fungi. The zoosporic phylum Blastocladiomycota appeared as the sister group to the terrestrial fungi plus Olpidium. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strong support for Olpidium as the closest living flagellated relative of the terrestrial fungi. Appearing nested among hyphal fungi, Olpidium's unicellular thallus may have been derived from ancestral hyphae. Early in their evolution, terrestrial hyphal fungi may have reproduced with zoospores.
Project description:The zoosporic obligate endoparasites, Olpidium, hold a pivotal position to the reconstruction of the flagellum loss in fungi, one of the key morphological transitions associated with the colonization of land by the early fungi. We generated genome and transcriptome data from non-axenic zoospores of Olpidium bornovanus and used a metagenome approach to extract phylogenetically informative fungal markers. Our phylogenetic reconstruction strongly supported Olpidium as the closest zoosporic relative of the non-flagellated terrestrial fungi. Super-alignment analyses resolved Olpidium as sister to the non-flagellated terrestrial fungi, whereas a super-tree approach recovered different placements of Olpidium, but without strong support. Further investigations detected little conflicting signal among the sampled markers but revealed a potential polytomy in early fungal evolution associated with the branching order among Olpidium, Zoopagomycota and Mucoromycota. The branches defining the evolutionary relationships of these lineages were characterized by short branch lengths and low phylogenetic content and received equivocal support for alternative phylogenetic hypotheses from individual markers. These nodes were marked by important morphological innovations, including the transition to hyphal growth and the loss of flagellum, which enabled early fungi to explore new niches and resulted in rapid and temporally concurrent Precambrian diversifications of the ancestors of several phyla of fungi.
Project description:We report the isolation, whole-genome sequencing, and annotation of Enterobacter sp. strain RIT 637, Pseudomonas sp. strain RIT 778, and <i>Deinococcus</i> sp. strain RIT 780. Disk diffusion assays using spent medium demonstrated that all bacteria produced bactericidal compounds against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.
Project description:Paenibacillus sp. strain A2 is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a mixture of formation water and petroleum in Daqing oilfield, China. This facultative aerobic bacterium was found to have a broad capacity for metabolizing hydrocarbon and organosulfur compounds, which are the main reasons for the interest in sequencing its genome. Here we describe the features of Paenibacillus sp. strain A2, together with the genome sequence and its annotation. The 7,650,246 bp long genome (1 chromosome but no plasmid) exhibits a G+C content of 54.2 % and contains 7575 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes. One putative alkane monooxygenase, one putative alkanesulfonate monooxygenase, one putative alkanesulfonate transporter and four putative sulfate transporters were found in the draft genome.
Project description:We report here the biosynthesis of daidzein in Streptomyces sp. SS52, its genome sequence and the analysis of its genome for finding putative genes involved in daidzein biosynthesis. The Streptomyces sp. SS52 strain was isolated from the plant Phyllanthus urinaria in Tra Vinh province, Vietnam. This endophytic strain is capable of producing the isoflavone daidzein in the culture medium. Streptomyces sp. SS52 possesses a linear genome of 8,184,045 bp and the GC content of this genome is 72.5%. The preliminary genome analysis identified homologs of genes involved in the de novo biosynthesis of daidzein in the genome of Streptomyces sp. SS52. The genome sequencing of Streptomyces sp. SS52 was essential for the study of the biosynthesis of daidzein in Streptomyces bacteria.