Project description:In order to study the physiological impact of GADD45 proteins on DNA methylation, we compared the methylation levels of Gadd45a,b,g triple knockout (TKO) and wild-type (Control) mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) via whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). Overall design: Gadd45a,b,g triple knockout (TKO) mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) were generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Control clones were generated using the same system but without specific gRNA. Genomic DNA was extracted from two Gadd45 TKO and two Control mESC clones and subjected to whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS).
Project description:Mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) cultures contain a rare cell population of "2C-like" cells resembling two-cell embryos, the key stage of zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Little is known about positive regulators of the 2C-like state and two-cell stage embryos. Here we show that GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA damage 45) proteins, regulators of TET (TET methylcytosine dioxygenase)-mediated DNA demethylation, promote both states. Methylome analysis of Gadd45a,b,g triple-knockout (TKO) ESCs reveal locus-specific DNA hypermethylation of ?7000 sites, which are enriched for enhancers and loci undergoing TET-TDG (thymine DNA glycosylase)-mediated demethylation. Gene expression is misregulated in TKOs, notably upon differentiation, and displays signatures of DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) and TET targets. TKOs manifest impaired transition into the 2C-like state and exhibit DNA hypermethylation and down-regulation of 2C-like state-specific genes. Gadd45a,b double-mutant mouse embryos display embryonic sublethality, deregulated ZGA gene expression, and developmental arrest. Our study reveals an unexpected role of GADD45 proteins in embryonic two-cell stage regulation.
Project description:DNA methylation is crucial for a wide variety of biological processes, yet no technique suitable for the methylome analysis of DNA methylation at single-cell resolution is available. Here, we describe a methylome analysis technique that enables single-cell and single-base resolution DNA methylation analysis based on reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (scRRBS). The technique is highly sensitive and can detect the methylation status of up to 1.5 million CpG sites within the genome of an individual mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC). Moreover, we show that the technique can detect the methylation status of individual CpG sites in a haploid sperm cell in a digitized manner as either unmethylated or fully methylated. Furthermore, we show that the demethylation dynamics of maternal and paternal genomes after fertilization can be traced within the individual pronuclei of mouse zygotes. The demethylation process of the genic regions is faster than that of the intergenic regions in both male and female pronuclei. Our method paves the way for the exploration of the dynamic methylome landscapes of individual cells at single-base resolution during physiological processes such as embryonic development, or during pathological processes such as tumorigenesis.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) readily differentiate to somatic or germ lineages but have impaired ability to form extra-embryonic lineages such as placenta or yolk sac. Here, we demonstrate that naive hESCs can be converted into cells that exhibit the cellular and molecular phenotypes of human trophoblast stem cells (hTSCs) derived from human placenta or blastocyst. The resulting "transdifferentiated" hTSCs show reactivation of core placental genes, acquisition of a placenta-like methylome, and the ability to differentiate to extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Modest differences are observed between transdifferentiated and placental hTSCs, most notably in the expression of certain imprinted loci. These results suggest that naive hESCs can differentiate to extra-embryonic lineage and demonstrate a new way of modeling human trophoblast specification and placental methylome establishment.
Project description:m6A-seq of undifferentiated and differentiated mouse embryonic stem cell m6A-mRNA library for undifferentiated and differentiated mouse embryonic stem cell each having one biological replicate were generated using HiSeq2000 v3 flowcell (Illumina) and sequenced for 100 bases with separate 7 base indexing read in a single lane.
Project description:In macroautophagy, cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation via autophagosomes that are formed by closure of cup-shaped isolation membranes. However, how the isolation membranes are formed is poorly understood. We recently found in yeast that a novel ubiquitin-like system, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugation system, is essential for autophagy. Here we show that mouse Apg12-Apg5 conjugate localizes to the isolation membranes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Using green fluorescent protein-tagged Apg5, we revealed that the cup-shaped isolation membrane is developed from a small crescent-shaped compartment. Apg5 localizes on the isolation membrane throughout its elongation process. To examine the role of Apg5, we generated Apg5-deficient embryonic stem cells, which showed defects in autophagosome formation. The covalent modification of Apg5 with Apg12 is not required for its membrane targeting, but is essential for involvement of Apg5 in elongation of the isolation membranes. We also show that Apg12-Apg5 is required for targeting of a mammalian Aut7/Apg8 homologue, LC3, to the isolation membranes. These results suggest that the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate plays essential roles in isolation membrane development.
Project description:Tcl1 is highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, but its expression rapidly decreases following differentiation. To assess Tcl1's roles in ES cells, we generated Tcl1-deficient and -overexpressing mouse ES cell lines. We found that Tcl1 was neither essential nor sufficient for maintaining the undifferentiated state. Tcl1 is reported to activate Akt and to enhance cell proliferation. We found that Tcl1 expression levels correlated positively with the proliferation rate and negatively with the apoptosis of ES cells, but did not affect Akt phosphorylation. On the other hand, the phosphorylation level of ?-catenin decreased in response to Tcl1 overexpression. We measured the ?-catenin activity using the TOPflash reporter assay, and found that wild-type ES cells had low activity, which Tcl1 overexpression enhanced 1.8-fold. When the canonical Wnt signaling is activated by ?-catenin stabilization, it reportedly helps maintain ES cells in the undifferentiated state. We then performed DNA microarray analyses between the Tcl1-deficient and -expressing ES cells. The results revealed that Tcl1 expression downregulated a distinct group of genes, including Ndp52, whose expression is very high in blastocysts but reduced in the primitive ectoderm. Based on these results, we discuss the possible roles of Tcl1 in ES cells.
Project description:Loss of the kinase MAP3K4 causes mouse embryonic gonadal sex reversal due to reduced expression of the testis-determining gene, Sry. However, because of widespread expression of MAP3K4, the cellular basis of this misregulation was unclear. Here, we show that mice lacking Gadd45? also exhibit XY gonadal sex reversal caused by disruption to Sry expression. Gadd45? is expressed in a dynamic fashion in somatic cells of the developing gonads from 10.5 days postcoitum (dpc) to 12.5 dpc. Gadd45? and Map3k4 genetically interact during sex determination, and transgenic overexpression of Map3k4 rescues gonadal defects in Gadd45?-deficient embryos. Sex reversal in both mutants is associated with reduced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and GATA4. In addition, embryos lacking both p38? and p38? also exhibit XY gonadal sex reversal. Taken together, our data suggest a requirement for GADD45? in promoting MAP3K4-mediated activation of p38 MAPK signaling in embryonic gonadal somatic cells for testis determination in the mouse.
Project description:tRNAs are subject to numerous modifications, including methylation. Mutations in the human N7-methylguanosine (m7G) methyltransferase complex METTL1/WDR4 cause primordial dwarfism and brain malformation, yet the molecular and cellular function in mammals is not well understood. We developed m7G methylated tRNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) and tRNA reduction and cleavage sequencing (TRAC-seq) to reveal the m7G tRNA methylome in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). A subset of 22 tRNAs is modified at a "RAGGU" motif within the variable loop. We observe increased ribosome occupancy at the corresponding codons in Mettl1 knockout mESCs, implying widespread effects on tRNA function, ribosome pausing, and mRNA translation. Translation of cell cycle genes and those associated with brain abnormalities is particularly affected. Mettl1 or Wdr4 knockout mESCs display defective self-renewal and neural differentiation. Our study uncovers the complexity of the mammalian m7G tRNA methylome and highlights its essential role in ESCs with links to human disease.