Project description:Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD), a contagious viral disease that commonly affects infants and children with blisters and flu like symptoms, is caused by a group of enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). However some HFMD caused by EV71 may further develop into severe neurological complications such as encephalitis and meningitis. The route of transmission was postulated that the virus transmit from one person to another through direct contact of vesicular fluid or droplet from the infected or via faecal-oral route. To this end, this study utilised a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) with epithelioid morphology as an in vitro model for the investigation of EV71 replication kinetics. Using qPCR, viral RNA was first detected in HT29 cells as early as 12 h post infection (hpi) while viral protein was first detected at 48 hpi. A significant change in HT29 cells' morphology was also observed after 48 hpi. Furthermore HT29 cell viability also significantly decreased at 72 hpi. Together, data from this study demonstrated that co-culture of HT29 with EV71 is a useful in vitro model to study the pathogenesis of EV71.
Project description:Chemoresistance is the main cause of treatment failure in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. In a previous work we identified low levels of PKM2 as a putative oxaliplatin-resistance marker in HT29 CRC cell lines and also in patients. In order to assess how PKM2 influences oxaliplatin response in CRC cells, we silenced PKM2 using specific siRNAs in HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. MTT test demonstrated that PKM2 silencing induced resistance in HT29 and SW480 cells and sensitivity in HCT116 cells. Same experiments in isogenic HCT116 p53 null cells and double silencing of p53 and PKM2 in HT29 cells failed to show an influence of p53. By using trypan blue stain and FITC-Annexin V/PI tests we detected that PKM2 knockdown was associated with an increase in cell viability but not with a decrease in apoptosis activation in HT29 cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed PKM2 nuclear translocation in response to oxaliplatin in HCT116 and HT29 cells but not in OXA-resistant HTOXAR3 cells. Finally, by using a qPCR Array we demonstrated that oxaliplatin and PKM2 silencing altered cell death gene expression patterns including those of BMF, which was significantly increased in HT29 cells in response to oxaliplatin, in a dose and time-dependent manner, but not in siPKM2-HT29 and HTOXAR3 cells. BMF gene silencing in HT29 cells lead to a decrease in oxaliplatin-induced cell death. In conclusion, our data report new non-glycolytic roles of PKM2 in response to genotoxic damage and proposes BMF as a possible target gene of PKM2 to be involved in oxaliplatin response and resistance in CRC cells.
Project description:Purpose: To explore the effect of POLR1D on colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and SW480. Methods: Whole transcriptome profiles of POLR1D knock down and AllStars Negative Control transfected colorectal cancer cell line (ie. HT29 and SW480) were generated by whole transcriptome sequencing, in replicate, using the Illumina NextSeq 550. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were analyzed at the gene level with Kallisto followed by DESeq2. Results: 45 genes showed consistent change after silencing of POLR1D, which included 2 genes that are well-known to be involved in the cell growth-related pathway, ie. VEGFA and EREG. Conclusions: POLR1D can infulence cell proliferation through VEGFA and EREG related pathway. Overall design: Whole transcriptome profiles of POLR1D-silenced and AllStars Negative Control transfected colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and SW480 in replicate, using Illumina NextSeq 550.
Project description:Ruta angustifolia Pers. is a perennial herb that is cultivated worldwide, including Southeast Asia, for the treatment of various diseases as traditional medicine.The purpose of the study was to identify an active principle of R. angustifolia and to investigate its effect on the HT29 cell death.The methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of R. angustifolia Pers. were initially investigated for their cytotoxic activity against two human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7 and HT29) and a normal human colon fibroblast cell line (CCD-18Co) using sulforhodamine B cytotoxicity assay. Eight compounds including rutamarin were isolated from the active chloroform extract and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line and CCD-18Co noncancer cells. Further studies on the induction of apoptosis such as morphological examinations, biochemical analyses, cell cycle analysis, and caspase activation assay were conducted in rutamarin-treated HT29 cells.Rutamarin exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 5.6 μM) but was not toxic to CCD-18Co cells. The morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis including activation of caspases 3, 8, and 9 were observed in rutamarin-treated HT29 cells. These may be associated with cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M checkpoints, which was also observed in HT29 cells.The present study describes rutamarin-induced apoptosis in the HT29 cell line for the first time and suggests that rutamarin has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent.Rutamarin was cytotoxic to HT29 colon cancer cells but exerted no damage to normal colon cellsRutamarin induced morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis in HT29 cellsRutamarin induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M checkpoints in a dose-dependent manner in HT29 cellsRutamarin activated caspases 3, 8, and 9 in a dose-dependent manner in HT29 cells. Abbreviations used: ACN: Acetonitrile, ANOVA: One-way analysis of variance, BrdU: Bromodeoxyuridine, 13C-NMR: Carbon-13 Nuclear magnetic resonance, CAD: Caspase-activated endonuclease, CCD-18Co: Human colon normal, DLD1: Human Duke's type C colorectal adenocarcinoma, DMRT: Duncan's multiple range test, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, DR4/5: Death receptor 4/5 protein, EMEM: Eagle's minimum essential media, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, FITC Annexin V: Annexin V conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC-DEVD-FMK: Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate of caspase inhibitor Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, FITC-IETD-FMK: Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate of caspase inhibitor Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, FITC-LEHD-FMK: Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate of caspase inhibitor Leu-Glu-His-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, G0: Quiescent phase of cell cycle, G1: Gap 1 phase of cell cycle, G2: Gap 2 phase of cell cycle, GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, HeLa: Human cervical adenocarcinoma, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, HT29: Human colon adenocarcinoma, Huh7.5: Human hepatocellular carcinoma, IC50: Half maximal inhibitory concentration, KSHV: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, M phase: Mitotic phase of cell cycle, MCF7: Human breast adenocarcinoma, NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance, PBS: Phosphate-buffered saline, PI: Propidium iodide, RNase: Ribonuclease, rt: Retention time, S phase: Synthesis phase of cell cycle, SD: Standard deviation, SRB: Sulforhodamine B, TCA: Trichloroacetic acid, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, TNF-R1: Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 protein, TUNEL: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labeling, UV: Ultraviolet.
Project description:Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, represents early stages of metastasis and is a promising target in colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. There have been many attempts to identify markers and key pathways induced throughout EMT but the process is complex and depends on the cancer type and tumour microenvironment. Here we used the colon cancer cell line HT29, which stably overexpressed Snail, the key transcription factor in early EMT, as a model for colorectal adenocarcinoma cells with a pro-metastatic phenotype. We investigated miRNA expression regulation during that phenotypic switching. We found that overexpression of Snail in HT29 cells triggered significant changes in individual miRNA levels but did not change the global efficiency of miRNA processing. Snail abundance repressed the expression of miR-192 and miR-194 and increased miR-205, let-7i and SNORD13 levels. These identified changes correlated with the reported transcriptomic alterations in Snail-overexpressing HT29 cells. We also investigated how Snail affected the miRNA content of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from HT29 cells. Our data suggest that the presence of Snail significantly alters the complex mRNA/miRNA interactions in the early steps of metastasis and also has an impact on the content of EVs released from HT29 cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the ability of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, to modulate expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the colon cancer cell line HT29. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We analysed the effect of celecoxib on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein and mRNA expression in HT29 cells. Experiments were performed in the presence of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) inhibitors to evaluate the involvement of these kinases in this phenomenon. We evaluated adhesion of HT29 cells to FCS-coated plastic wells in the presence of celecoxib or MAPK inhibitors. Furthermore, we studied the effect of celecoxib on apoptosis. KEY RESULTS: Celecoxib down-regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in HT29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent way. Celecoxib reduced activation of p38 and p55 c-Jun terminal NH(2) kinase (JNK) MAPKs, but did not affect p46 JNK or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation. Pretreatment with SB202190 or SP600125, specific inhibitors of p38 and JNK MAPKs, respectively, reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in HT29 cells dose-dependently. Adhesion of HT29 cells to FCS-coated plastic wells was inhibited dose-dependently by celecoxib, and also by SB202190 and SP600125. Celecoxib showed a pro-apoptotic effect, inducing Bax and BID but down-regulating Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings show that celecoxib caused down-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, affecting the adhesive properties of HT29 cells in a COX-2 independent way, inhibiting p38 and p55 MAPKs and activating a pro-apoptotic pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is highly expressed during inflammation and can promote the progression of colorectal cancer. Interactions between cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells are key events in this process. Recently, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, was shown to inhibit expression of the adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, in the human colon cancer cell line HT29 and to inhibit adhesion of HT29 cells to FCS-coated plastic wells. Here, we evaluated the effects of celecoxib on adhesion of HT29 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), mediated by ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, to assess further the potential protective effects of celecoxib on cancer development. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Celecoxib was incubated for 4 h with HT29 cells and HUVEC and adhesion was quantified by a computerized micro-imaging system. Expression analysis of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell adhesion molecules was performed by western blot. KEY RESULTS: Celecoxib (1 nM-10 microM) inhibited, with the same potency, adhesion of HT29 cells to resting HUVEC or to HUVEC stimulated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), mimicking inflammatory conditions. Analysis of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression showed that celecoxib inhibited expression of both molecules in TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC, but not in resting HUVEC; inhibition was concentration-dependent and maximal (about 50%) at 10 microM celecoxib. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In conclusion, our data show that celecoxib inhibits HT29 cell adhesion to HUVEC and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, in stimulated endothelial cells. These effects may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of celecoxib in the development of colorectal cancer.
Project description:We created furin KO cells in three colorectal cancer cell lines (DLD1, HCA7 and HT29) using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. And then we performed RNA-Seq analysis in furin KO colorectal cancer cells to identify potential effect of furin on gene expression patterns in DLD1, HCA7 and HT29 cells. Overall design: mRNA profiles of DLD1 cells (WT or furin KO), HCA7 cells (WT or furin KO) and HT29 cells (WT or furin KO) using RNA-Seq.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the subpopulation of cells within a tumor that can self-renew, differentiate into multiple lineages, and drive tumor growth. Here we describe a two-pronged approach for the identification and characterization of CSCs from colorectal cancer cell lines, using a Matrigel-based differentiation assay, and cell surface markers CD44 and CD24. About 20 to 30% of cells from the SW1222 cell line form megacolonies in Matrigel that have complex 3D structures resembling colonic crypts. The megacolonies' capacity to self-renew in vitro is direct evidence that they contain the CSCs. Furthermore, just 200 cells from SW1222 megacolonies initiate tumors in NOD/SCID mice. We also showed that CD44(+)CD24(+) cells enriched for colorectal CSCs in the HT29 and SW1222 cell lines, which can self-renew and reform all four CD44/CD24 subpopulations, are the most clonogenic in vitro and can initiate tumors in vivo. A single SW1222 CD44(+)CD24(+) CSC, when grown in Matrigel, can form large megacolonies that differentiate into enterocyte, enteroendocrine, and goblet cell lineages. The HCT116 line does not differentiate or express CDX1, nor does it contain subpopulations of cells with greater tumor-forming capacity, suggesting that HCT116 contains mainly CSCs. However, forced expression of CDX1 in HCT116 leads to reduced clonogenicity and production of differentiating crypt-containing colonies, which can explain the selection for reduced CDX1 expression in many colorectal cancers. In summary, colorectal cancer cell lines contain subpopulations of CSCs, characterized by their cell surface markers and colony morphology, which can self-renew and differentiate into multiple lineages.