Project description:Since the first isolation in 2002, the metallo-β-lactamase GIM-1 has not been detected outside Germany. The data presented here, for 50 clinical blaGIM-1-positive isolates, including Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii), collected between 2007 and 2012 at the original site in an ongoing outbreak, demonstrate a diverse genetic background and dissemination of the gene conferring resistance to enteric bacteria.
Project description:A total of 3,700 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from 17 general hospitals in Japan from 1992 to 1994. Of these isolates, 132 carbapenem-resistant strains were subjected to DNA hybridization analysis with the metallo-beta-lactamase gene (blaIMP)-specific probe. Fifteen strains carrying the metallo-beta-lactamase gene were identified in five hospitals in different geographical areas. Three strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrated high-level imipenem resistance (MIC, > or = 128 micrograms/ml), two strains exhibited low-level imipenem resistance (MIC, < or = 4 micrograms/ml), and the rest of the strains were in between. These results revealed that the acquisition of a metallo-beta-lactamase gene alone does not necessarily confer elevated resistance to carbapenems. In several strains, the metallo-beta-lactamase gene was carried by large plasmids, and carbapenem resistance was transferred from P. aeruginosa to Escherichia coli by electroporation in association with the acquisition of the large plasmid. Southern hybridization analysis and genomic DNA fingerprinting profiles revealed different genetic backgrounds for these 15 isolates, although considerable similarity was observed for the strains isolated from the same hospital. These findings suggest that the metallo-beta-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa strains are not confined to a unique clonal lineage but proliferated multifocally by plasmid-mediated dissemination of the metallo-beta-lactamase gene in strains of different genetic backgrounds. Thus, further proliferation of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains with resistance to various beta-lactams may well be inevitable in the future, which emphasizes the need for early recognition of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains, rigorous infection control, and restricted clinical use of broad-spectrum beta-lactams including carbapenems.
Project description:Among imipenem-nonsusceptible isolates, acquired metallo-beta-lactamase genes were detected in 36 of 581 (6.2%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 42 of 44 (95.4%) other Pseudomonas species, and 136 of 513 (26.5%) Acinetobacter species from 2003 to 2004 at a Korean hospital. Overall, bla(VIM-2)-like genes were the most prevalent and were also detected in Enterobacteriaceae, including Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Project description:The ascendancy of metallo-beta-lactamases within the clinical sector, while not ubiquitous, has nonetheless been dramatic; some reports indicate that nearly 30% of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains possess a metallo-beta-lactamase. Acquisition of a metallo-beta-lactamase gene will invariably mediate broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance in P. aeruginosa, but the level of in vitro resistance in Acinetobacter spp. and Enterobacteriaceae is less dependable. Their clinical significance is further embellished by their ability to hydrolyze all beta-lactams and by the fact that there is currently no clinical inhibitor, nor is there likely to be for the foreseeable future. The genes encoding metallo-beta-lactamases are often procured by class 1 (sometimes class 3) integrons, which, in turn, are embedded in transposons, resulting in a highly transmissible genetic apparatus. Moreover, other gene cassettes within the integrons often confer resistance to aminoglycosides, precluding their use as an alternative treatment. Thus far, the metallo-beta-lactamases encoded on transferable genes include IMP, VIM, SPM, and GIM and have been reported from 28 countries. Their rapid dissemination is worrisome and necessitates the implementation of not just surveillance studies but also metallo-beta-lactamase inhibitor studies securing the longevity of important anti-infectives.
Project description:BackgroundThe increased prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative isolates caused by Metallo-?-lactamase (MBL) is worrisome in clinical settings worldwide. The mortality rate associated with infections caused by MBLs producing organisms ranging from 18 to 67%.This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Metallo-?-lactamase genes among some Gram-negative clinical isolates (Carbapenems susceptible and resistant).MethodsThis paper describes a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out to detect MBL genes such as (blaVIM, blaIMP and blaNDM) by multiplex PCR mixture reaction among 200 Gram-negative clinical isolates (Citrobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus valgaris). Khartoum hospitals during 2015 to 2016.Limitation: The study organisms were not evaluated for non-MBL carbapenemases, such as KPC and OXA-48.ResultsThe prevalence of MBL genes by multiplex PCR assays among 200 Gram-negative clinical isolates was 72(36.1%). MBL positive genes among 100 carbapenems sensitive and 100 resistant isolates were 27(27%) and 45(45%) respectively. There was a statistically, significant association between the antimicrobial susceptibility and the presences of MBL genes (P.value?=?0.008).E.coli was the predominant species possessing MBL genes 26(36.1%), with 22(30.7%) species having a combination of MBL genes.Verona integron Metallo beta-lactamase (VIM) was the most frequent genes 28(38.9%) out of 72 MBL detected genes, followed by imipenemase (IMP) was 19(26.4%), and consequently, New Delhi Metallo beta lactamase was 3(4.2%).ConclusionThis study revealed a high prevalence of MBL genes in some Gram-negative isolates from Khartoum State Hospitals which were not previously established in these hospitals.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12879-018-3581-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:We characterized 9 New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (5 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Escherichia coli, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg) isolates identified in the United States and cultured from 8 patients in 5 states during April 2009-March 2011. Isolates were resistant to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides, demonstrated MICs ≤1 µg/mL of colistin and polymyxin, and yielded positive metallo-β-lactamase screening results. Eight isolates had blaNDM-1, and 1 isolate had a novel allele (blaNDM-6). All 8 patients had recently been in India or Pakistan, where 6 received inpatient health care. Plasmids carrying blaNDM frequently carried AmpC or extended spectrum β-lactamase genes. Two K. pneumoniae isolates and a K. pneumoniae isolate from Sweden shared incompatibility group A/C plasmids with indistinguishable restriction patterns and a common blaNDM fragment; all 3 were multilocus sequence type 14. Restriction profiles of the remaining New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase plasmids, including 2 from the same patient, were diverse.
Project description:The IMP-4 metallo-beta-lactamase, originally recognized in Acinetobacter spp. from Hong Kong, more recently appeared simultaneously in isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae from Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. The bla(IMP-4)-qacG2-aacA4-catB3 cassette array was found in isolates from both cities, but in different wider genetic contexts and on different plasmids, suggesting movement of this array by homologous recombination.
Project description:Carbapenemases inactivate most ?-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, and have frequently been reported among Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Traditionally, the horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase-encoding genes (CEGs) has been linked to plasmids. However, given that integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are possibly the most abundant conjugative elements among prokaryotes, we conducted an in silico analysis to ascertain the likely role of ICEs in the spread of CEGs among all bacterial genomes (n=182?663). We detected 17?520 CEGs, of which 66 were located within putative ICEs among several bacterial species (including clinically relevant bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli). Most CEGs detected within ICEs belong to the IMP, NDM and SPM metallo-beta-lactamase families, and the serine beta-lactamase KPC and GES families. Different mechanisms were likely responsible for acquisition of these genes. The majority of CEG-bearing ICEs belong to the MPFG, MPFT and MPFF classes and often encode resistance to other antibiotics (e.g. aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones). This study provides a snapshot of the different CEGs associated with ICEs among available bacterial genomes and sheds light on the underappreciated contribution of ICEs to the spread of carbapenem resistance globally.
Project description:A novel plasmid-mediated metallo-beta-lactamase (IMP-9) is described in seven isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Guangzhou, China, isolated in 2000. The gene was carried on a large (approximately 450-kb) IncP-2 conjugative plasmid. This is the first report of carriage of bla(IMP) genes on such large plasmids.
Project description:Eleven environmental samples from different sources were screened for the presence of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing bacteria by using a selective enrichment medium containing a carbapenem antibiotic and subsequently testing each isolate for production of EDTA-inhibitable carbapenemase activity. A total of 15 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing isolates, including 10 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates, 3 Chryseobacterium spp., one Aeromonas hydrophila isolate, and one Janthinobacterium lividum isolate (a species in which production of metallo-beta-lactamase activity was not previously reported), were obtained from 8 samples. In the J. lividum isolate, named JAC1, production of metallo-beta-lactamase activity was elicited upon exposure to beta-lactams. Screening of a JAC1 genomic library for clones showing a reduced imipenem susceptibility led to the isolation of a metallo-beta-lactamase determinant encoding a new member (named THIN-B) of the highly divergent subclass B3 lineage of metallo-beta-lactamases. THIN-B is most closely related (35.6% identical residues) to the L1 enzyme of S. maltophilia and more distantly related to the FEZ-1 enzyme of Legionella gormanii (27.8% identity) and to the GOB-1 enzyme of Chryseobacterium meningosepticum (24.2% identity). Sequences related to bla(THIN-B), and inducible production of metallo-beta-lactamase activity, were also detected in the J. lividum type strain DSM1522. Expression of the bla(THIN-B) gene in Escherichia coli resulted in decreased susceptibility to several beta-lactams, including penicillins, cephalosporins (including cephamycins and oxyimino cephalosporins), and carbapenems, revealing a broad substrate specificity of the enzyme. The results of this study indicated that metallo-beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are widespread in the environment and identified a new molecular class B enzyme in the environmental species J. lividum.