Project description:<b>Background:</b> Consumption of foods high in energy, sugar, fat, and salt contributes to the increase in body mass index and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. Mexico implemented an 8% tax to non-essential energy-dense foods (NEDF) in 2014 as part of a national strategy to reduce obesity. <b>Objective:</b> We modeled the potential effect of the NEDF tax on body mass index and overweight and obesity in Mexican children (6-17 years). <b>Materials and Methods:</b> We used the Dynamic Childhood Growth and Obesity Model calibrated to Mexican children to simulate the potential 1-year effect of the NEDF tax on body weight. Inputs for the model included NEDF consumption, weight, and height, obtained from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey. To project the potential impact of the tax, we ran a first simulation without intervention and another reducing the caloric intake from NEDF in the proportion observed in the Mexican population after the tax (-5.1%). The tax effect was defined as the absolute difference in body mass index and prevalence of overweight and obesity between both models. <b>Results:</b> The tax on NEDF should lead to a mean reduction of 4.1 g or 17.4 kcal/day of NEDF at the population level. One year after the tax, mean body weight and body mass index should decrease 0.40 kg and 0.19 kg/m<sup>2</sup>; this translates into -1.7 and -0.4% points in overweight and obesity, respectively. <b>Conclusions:</b> The use of fiscal instruments to discourage the consumption of NEDF could help to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine whether the relationship between nativity and overweight/obesity has changed over time among Mexican American children and to investigate the implications of this pattern on overweight/obesity disparities relative to non-Hispanic white children. METHODS:Using cross-sectional data from Mexican American and non-Hispanic white children aged 4 to 17 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994 [N?=?4,720] and 2005-2014 [N?=?7,275]) log-binomial regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) of overweight/obesity by nativity status adjusting for sociodemographic covariates, survey period, and a nativity-by-survey period interaction. A separate covariate-adjusted model tested a three-level interaction between ethnicity, nativity, and survey period that included non-Hispanic white children. RESULTS:In 1988-1994, foreign-born Mexican Americans had significantly lower prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with US-born Mexican Americans (PR?=?0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.94). However, by 2005-2014, the nativity gap in overweight/obesity had closed (PR?=?0.94, 95% CI: 0.84-1.07). Moreover, while foreign-born Mexican Americans had the lowest levels of overweight/obesity in 1988-1994, by 2005-2014, foreign-born and US-born Mexican Americans had comparable estimates, both significantly higher than that of non-Hispanic white individuals. CONCLUSIONS:Although overweight/obesity disparities between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic white Americans had previously been specific to US-born Mexican Americans, disparities in more recent years have extended to foreign-born Mexican Americans.
Project description:Imprinted genes often affect body size-related traits such as weight. However, the association of imprinting with obesity, especially childhood obesity, has not been well studied. Mexican-American children have a high prevalence, approaching 50%, of obesity and/or overweight. In a pilot study of 75 Mexican-American children, we analyzed the relationships among obese/overweight status, methylation status and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) status at a CpG site in a differentially methylated region (DMR) of the imprinted H19/IGF2 locus. We observed a significant difference in SNP rs10732516 frequency between boys and girls among the overweight and obese children but not among the lean children. We also found that children with lower methylation of the polymorphic CpG site (CpG4) in the H19 DMR had higher birth weights than did children with higher methylation (P = 0.04). Our results suggest that CpG4 methylation status may be associated with childhood obesity in Mexican-American children in a sex-specific manner.
Project description:Hispanic children in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. The role of acculturation in obesity is unclear. This study examined the relation between child obesity, dietary intake, and maternal acculturation in Hispanic children. We hypothesized that children of more acculturated mothers would consume more unhealthy foods and would have higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. A total of 209 Hispanic mothers of children aged 2-4 y (50% female, 35.3 ± 8.7 mo, BMI percentile: 73.1 ± 27.8, 30% obese, 19% overweight) were recruited for an obesity prevention/reversal study. The associations between baseline maternal acculturation [Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II)], child BMI percentile, and child diet were examined. Factor analysis of the Brief ARSMA-II in Puerto Rican mothers resulted in 2 new factors, which were named the Hispanic Orientation Score (4 items, loadings: 0.64-0.81) and U.S. Mainland Orientation Score (6 items, loadings: -0.61-0.92). In the total sample, children who consumed more noncore foods were more likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.01). Additionally, children of mothers with greater acculturation to the United States consumed more noncore foods (P < 0.0001) and had higher BMI percentiles (P < 0.04). However, mothers with greater Hispanic acculturation served fewer noncore foods (P < 0.0001). In the Puerto Rican subgroup of mothers, Puerto Rican mothers with greater acculturation to the United States served more noncore foods (P < 0.0001), but there was no association between acculturation and child BMI percentile in this subgroup. These mothers, however, served fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P < 0.01) compared with non-Puerto Rican mothers, and this may have negated the effect of noncore food consumption on BMI percentile. These data suggest a complex relation between acculturation, noncore food consumption, and child BMI percentile in Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican Hispanic children.
Project description:In Mexico, the genetic mechanisms underlying childhood obesity are poorly known. We evaluated the effect of loci, known to be associated with childhood body mass index (BMI) in Europeans, in Mexican children from different ethnic groups. We performed linear and logistic analyses of BMI and obesity, respectively, in Mestizos and Amerindians (Seris, Yaquis and Nahuatl speakers) from Northern (n = 369) and Central Mexico (n = 8545). We used linear models to understand the effect of degree of Amerindian ancestry (AMA) and genetic risk score (GRS) on BMI z-score. Northern Mexican Mestizos showed the highest overweight-obesity prevalence (47.4%), followed by Seri (36.2%) and Central Mexican (31.5%) children. Eleven loci (SEC16B/rs543874, OLFM4/rs12429545/rs9568856, FTO/rs9939609, MC4R/rs6567160, GNPDA2/rs13130484, FAIM2/rs7132908, FAM120AOS/rs944990, LMX1B/rs3829849, ADAM23/rs13387838, HOXB5/rs9299) were associated with BMI and seven (SEC16B/rs543874, OLFM4/rs12429545/rs9568856, FTO/rs9939609, MC4R/rs6567160, GNPDA2 rs13130484, LMX1B/rs3829849) were associated with obesity in Central Mexican children. One SNP was associated with obesity in Northern Mexicans and Yaquis (SEC16B/rs543874). We found higher BMI z-score at higher GRS (? = 0.11, p = 0.2 × 10-16) and at lower AMA (? = -0.05, p = 6.8 × 10-7). The GRS interacts with AMA to increase BMI (? = 0.03, p = 6.08 × 10-3). High genetic BMI susceptibility increase the risk of higher BMI, including in Amerindian children.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican adults is very high. To identify the dietary characteristics related with this disorder is necessary to design intervention. The objective was to analyze the association between dietary patterns and obesity in Mexican adults.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Mexican adults (20-59 years old) participating in the Halfway National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016. Participants (<i>n</i> = 5,735) were classified as having normal weight, overweight-obesity and by their abdominal circumference as having abdominal obesity or not. With information from a 7-day food frequency questionnaire, we used a K-means cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns and calculated a healthy diet indicator to evaluate quality. The association between dietary patterns and overweight-obesity and abdominal obesity was assessed with Poisson regression models adjusted by some characteristics.<h4>Results</h4>We identified a Rural pattern characterized by tortilla, legumes and egg consumption; a Diverse pattern, characterized by fruits, meat and poultry, vegetables, and dairy beverages, and desserts; and a Westernized pattern, characterized by sweetened non-dairy beverages, fast food, bakery and cookies, candies and salty snacks. In men, Westernized pattern was associated with overweight-obesity (PR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.27), and abdominal obesity (PR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00-1.33), the Diverse pattern was associated with overweight-obesity (PR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.38), and abdominal obesity (PR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.50), compared with the Rural pattern. In women, these dietary patterns were not associated with obesity.<h4>Discussion</h4>Westernized and Diverse patterns are associated with overweight and obesity and abdominal obesity in men. Gender-specific recommendations and surveillance are necessary in the Mexican adult population.
Project description:Background: Population-level health and nutrition surveys provide critical anthropometric data used to monitor trends of the prevalence of under nutrition and overweight in children under 5 years old, and overweight and obesity in the population over 5 years of age. Objective: Analyze the children malnutrition and overweight and obesity in children, teenagers and adults through the National Health and Nutrition Surveys information available from public databases. Materials and Methods: Comparable anthropometric data was gathered by five Mexican National Health and Nutrition Surveys (in Spanish, ENSANUT). In pre-school-age children, under nutrition status was identified through underweight (Z-score below -2 in weight-for-age), stunting (chronic malnutrition) (Z-score below -2 for length/height-for-age), or wasting (Z-score below -2, for weight-for-length/height); overweight status was defined as a body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) for age over +2. For school-age children and adolescents, a Z-score BMI between +1 and +2 deviations was defined as overweight, and between +2 and +5.5 as obesity. In adults (≥20 years of age), overweight status was classified as a BMI between 25.0 and 29.9, and obesity as ≥30. Results: The anthropometric data presented derives from the databases of five survey years of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey: 2006, 2012, 2016, 2018, and 2020. They include a total of 210,915 subjects with complete anthropometric data (weight, length/height) distributed on five survey moments; subjects were categorized by age group: pre-school-age children (n = 25,968), school-age children (n = 42,255), adolescents (n = 39,275), and adults (n = 103,417). Prevalence of malnutrition by indicator was calculated: in pre-school-age children: low height- and weight-for-age, low weight-for-height, and overweight; and in school-age children, adolescents, and adults, the indicators calculated were overweight and obesity. Conclusions: Results demonstrate the importance of maintaining systematic, reliable, and timely national anthropometric data in the population, in order to detect and track trends and to form the basis of nutrition-related public policy.
Project description:In this work, transcriptoma of invasive breast carcinoma was studied by means of microarray expression in Mexican women who are overweight or obese. The dysfunction of the adipokines signaling pathways has recently been linked to more aggressive features of breast cáncer. We hypothesized that there are changes related to the signaling of adipokines in the expression profile of invasive breast carcinoma of Mexican women with overweight or obesity. The objectives were as follows: 1) Determine the expression profile of tumour tissue of Mexican women who are overweight or obese by comparing tumoral tissue and non -tumoral tissue, both from the same patient, 2) Identification of over- or underexpressed genes involved in signalling pathways related to adipokines and the tumour process, 3) Identify the signalling pathways that presented genes with expression changes and were related to adipokines and the tumoural process. Overall design: Six independent pools: three samples from obese patients, two samples from obese patients, two samples from overweight patients, two samples from overweight patients, three samples from overweight patients, two samples from overweight patients, comprised of total RNA isolated from tumor and adjacent tissue.
Project description:Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5-11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health-Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of 'Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront.
Project description:International migration has economic and health implications. The acculturation process to the host country may be linked to childhood obesity. We use the Community Energy Balance (CEB) framework to analyze the relationship between migration and childhood obesity in Mexican households with international migrants. Using longitudinal data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS), we examine how migrant networks affect childhood obesity in origin communities. We also review binational health programs that could be effective at tackling childhood obesity in migrant households from Mexico. Children embedded in migrant networks are at greater risk of developing overweight or obesity, suggesting a significant relationship between childhood obesity and international migration in Mexican households. Based on our search criteria, our analysis of health outreach programs shows that Ventanillas de Salud (VDS)/Health Windows has great promise to prevent childhood obesity in a culturally sensitive and trustful environment. The CEB framework is useful to understand how migration contributes to the risk of childhood overweight and obesity in migrant households. VDS is a feasible and replicable strategy with great potential to address childhood obesity among migrant families accounting for the dynamic and binational determinants of childhood obesity.