Project description:Molecular phylogeny is a fundamental tool to understanding the evolution of all life forms. One common issue faced by molecular phylogeny is the lack of sufficient molecular markers. Here, we present PhyloMarker, a phylogenomic tool designed to find nuclear gene markers for the inference of phylogeny through multiple genome comparison. Around 800 candidate markers were identified by PhyloMarker through comparison of partial genomes of Microcebus and Otolemur. In experimental tests of 20 randomly selected markers, nine markers were successfully amplified by PCR and directly sequenced in all 17 nominal Microcebus species. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data obtained for 17 taxa and nine markers confirmed the distinct lineage inferred from previous mtDNA data. PhyloMarker has also been used by other projects including the herons (Ardeidae, Aves) phylogeny and the Wood mice (Muridae, Mammalia) phylogeny. All source code and sample data are made available at http://bioinfo-srv1.awh.unomaha.edu/phylomarker/.
Project description:The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.
Project description:Ania Lindl. is a small genus of the tribe Collabieae subtribe Collabiinae (Orchidaceae). For the last 150 years, it has generally been treated as a synonym of Tainia Blume. In this study, we critically re-examined morphological characters that have been used to distinguish Ania from Tainia, and assessed the phylogeny of Tainia using morphological and palynological characters. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS, chloroplast trnL intron and combined DNA data sets were analysed to clarify the delimitation and the phylogeny of these groups. The morphological and palynological survey revealed a number of useful diagnostic characters which permit a clear definition of Ania, after the exclusion of a single taxonomically questionable species. Results confirmed that Ania is distinct from Tainia. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on molecular data provided the greatest resolution and produced a morphologically well differentiated clade of Ania. In addition to morphological and suggested palynological characters, the phylogenies were also supported by karyological evidence. Our results support the independent generic status of Ania. The genus name Ania is revived and re-established.
Project description:Tonkinacris is a small group in Acrididae. While a few species were occasionally sampled in some previous molecular studies, there is no revisionary research devoted to the genus. In this study, we explored the phylogeny of and the relationships among Chinese species of the genus Tonkinacris using the mitochondrial COI barcode and the complete sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The phylogeny was reconstructed in maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference frameworks, respectively. The overlap range between intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence was assessed via K2P distances. Species boundaries were delimitated using phylogenetic species concept, NJ tree, K2P distance, the statistical parsimony network as well as the GMYC model. The results demonstrate that the Chinese Tonkinacris species is a monophyletic group and the phylogenetic relationship among them is (T. sinensis, (T. meridionalis, (T. decoratus, T. damingshanus))). While T. sinensis, T. meridionalis and T. decoratus were confirmed being good independent species strongly supported by both morphological and molecular evidences, the validity of T. damingshanus was not perfectly supported by molecular evidence in this study.
Project description:The genus Flaveria has been extensively used as a model to study the evolution of C4 photosynthesis as it contains both C3 and C4 species as well as a number of species that exhibit intermediate types of photosynthesis. The current phylogenetic tree of the Flaveria genus contains 21 of the 23 known Flaveria species and has been constructed using a combination of morphologicial data and three non-coding DNA sequences (nuclear encoded ETS, ITS and chloroplast encoded trnl-F). However, recent studies have suggested that phylogenetic trees inferred using a small number of molecular sequences may often be incorrect. Moreover, studies in other genera have often shown substantial differences between trees inferred using morphological data and those using molecular sequence. To provide new insight into the phylogeny of the genus Flaveria we utilize RNA-Seq data to construct a multi-gene concatenated phylogenetic tree of 17 Flaveria species. Furthermore, we use this new data to identify 14 C4 specific non-synonymous mutation sites, 12 of which (86%) can be independently verified by public sequence data. We propose that the data collection method provided in this study can be used as a generic method for facilitating phylogenetic tree reconstruction in the absence of reference genomes for the target species. Overall design: 18 Flaveria sample including 11 species are sequenced, other three samples were also sequenced as out-group. In all, 21 samples.
Project description:The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi.
Project description:Two East Asian <i>Lomariopsis</i> (Lomariopsidaceae, Polypodiales) species, <i>Lomariopsismoorei</i> and <i>Lomariopsislongini</i>, which were previously misidentified as <i>L.spectabilis</i>, are here described as new species based on evidence from morphological characters and a molecular phylogeny. The two species differ from the three other described species in East Asia by their venation, pinna shapes, and perine morphology. A phylogeny based on a combined dataset of three chloroplast regions (<i>rbcL</i>+ <i>rps4-trnS</i> + <i>trnL-L-F</i>) showed that <i>L.moorei</i> and <i>L.longini</i> each formed a well-supported monophyletic group which was distantly related to both <i>L.spectabilis</i> and the other morphologically similar East Asian species, <i>L.boninensis</i>.
Project description:The genus Flaveria has been extensively used as a model to study the evolution of C4 photosynthesis as it contains both C3 and C4 species as well as a number of species that exhibit intermediate types of photosynthesis. The current phylogenetic tree of the Flaveria genus contains 21 of the 23 known Flaveria species and has been constructed using a combination of morphologicial data and three non-coding DNA sequences (nuclear encoded ETS, ITS and chloroplast encoded trnl-F). However, recent studies have suggested that phylogenetic trees inferred using a small number of molecular sequences may often be incorrect. Moreover, studies in other genera have often shown substantial differences between trees inferred using morphological data and those using molecular sequence. To provide new insight into the phylogeny of the genus Flaveria we utilize RNA-Seq data to construct a multi-gene concatenated phylogenetic tree of 17 Flaveria species. Furthermore, we use this new data to identify 14 C4 specific non-synonymous mutation sites, 12 of which (86%) can be independently verified by public sequence data. We propose that the data collection method provided in this study can be used as a generic method for facilitating phylogenetic tree reconstruction in the absence of reference genomes for the target species. 18 Flaveria sample including 11 species are sequenced, other three samples were also sequenced as out-group. In all, 21 samples.
Project description:Brucellae are worldwide bacterial pathogens of livestock and wildlife, but phylogenetic reconstructions have been challenging due to limited genetic diversity. We assessed the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships of five Brucella species-Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, B. canis, and B. ovis-using whole-genome comparisons. We developed a phylogeny using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 13 genomes and rooted the tree using the closely related soil bacterium and opportunistic human pathogen, Ochrobactrum anthropi. Whole-genome sequencing and a SNP-based approach provided the requisite level of genetic detail to resolve species in the highly conserved brucellae. Comparisons among the Brucella genomes revealed 20,154 orthologous SNPs that were shared in all genomes. Rooting with Ochrobactrum anthropi reveals that the B. ovis lineage is basal to the rest of the Brucella lineage. We found that B. suis is a highly divergent clade with extensive intraspecific genetic diversity. Furthermore, B. suis was determined to be paraphyletic in our analyses, only forming a monophyletic clade when the B. canis genome was included. Using a molecular clock with these data suggests that most Brucella species diverged from their common B. ovis ancestor in the past 86,000 to 296,000 years, which precedes the domestication of their livestock hosts. Detailed knowledge of the Brucella phylogeny will lead to an improved understanding of the ecology, evolutionary history, and host relationships for this genus and can be used for determining appropriate genotyping approaches for rapid detection and diagnostic assays for molecular epidemiological and clinical studies.
Project description:Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword - hence their common name "swordtails". Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and - surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish) species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus). We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily.We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually selected sword trait is shown to be the most likely ancestral state for the genus Xiphophorus. Further, we provide a well supported estimation of the phylogenetic relationships between the previously unresolved northern swordtail groups.This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the entire genus Xiphophorus provides evidence that a second swordtail species, X. monticolus, arose through hybridization. Previously, we demonstrated that X. clemenciae, another southern swordtail species, arose via hybridization. These findings highlight the potential key role of hybridization in the evolution of this genus and suggest the need for further investigations into how hybridization contributes to speciation more generally.