Project description:The Gabriella Miller Kids First Pediatric Research Program (Kids First) is a trans-NIH effort initiated in response to the 2014 Gabriella Miller Kids First Research Act and supported by the NIH Common Fund. This program focuses on gene discovery in pediatric cancers and structural birth defects and the development of the Gabriella Miller Kids First Pediatric Data Resource (Kids First Data Resource). All of the WGS and phenotypic data from this study are accessible through dbGaP and kidsfirstdrc.org, where other Kids First datasets can also be accessed. Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NCS) is a common, major structural birth defect - due to the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures - that requires extensive surgical correction and is associated with considerable ongoing medical problems and health care costs. Because little is known about the causes of NCS, whole genome sequencing will help advance knowledge of genetic factors contributing to... (for more see dbGaP study page.)
Project description:BACKGROUND:Craniosynostosis is a condition that includes the premature fusion of one or multiple cranial sutures. Among various craniosynostosis forms, sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is the most prevalent. Although different gene mutations have been identified in some craniosynostosis syndromes, the cause of sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis remains largely unknown. METHODS:To screen for candidate genes for sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, the authors sequenced DNA of 93 sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis patients from a population-based study conducted in Iowa and New York states. FGFR1-3 mutational hotspots and the entire TWIST1, RAB23, and BMP2 coding regions were screened because of their known roles in human nonsyndromic or syndromic sagittal craniosynostosis, expression patterns, and/or animal model studies. RESULTS:The authors identified two rare variants in their cohort. A FGFR1 insertion c.730_731insG, which led to a premature stop codon, was predicted to abolish the entire immunoglobulin-like III domain, including the ligand-binding region. A c.439C>G variant was observed in TWIST1 at its highly conserved loop domain in another patient. The patient's mother harbored the same variant and was reported with jaw abnormalities. These two variants were not detected in 116 alleles from unaffected controls or seen in the several databases; however, TWIST1 variant was found in a low frequency of 0.000831 percent in Exome Aggregation Consortium database. CONCLUSIONS:The low mutation detection rate indicates that these genes account for only a small proportion of sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis patients. The authors' results add to the perception that sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is a complex developmental defect with considerable genetic heterogeneity. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Risk, II.
Project description:Craniosynostosis is the early fusion of one or more sutures of the infant skull and is a common defect occurring in approximately 1 of every 2,500 live births. Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (NSC) accounts for approximately 80% of all cases and is thought to have strong genetic determinants that are yet to be identified. ALX4 is a homeodomain transcription factor with known involvement in osteoblast regulation. By direct sequencing of the ALX4 coding region in sagittal or sagittal-suture-involved nonsyndromic craniosynostosis probands, we identified novel, nonsynonymous, familial variants in three of 203 individuals with NSC. Using dual-luciferase assay we show that two of these variants (V7F and K211E) confer a significant gain-of-function effect on ALX4. Our results suggest that ALX4 variants may have an impact on the genetic etiology of NSC.
Project description:Craniosynostosis is caused by premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures, restricting skull, brain and face growth. Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis could disturb the proportions of face. Although morphometric diameters of nasal cavity in healthy children are already known, they have not been established yet in children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. The aim our study was to check whether diameters of bone structures of nasal cavity in children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis measured in CT are within normal range. 249 children aged 0-36 months (96 with clinical diagnosis of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and 153 in control group) were included into the study. The following diameters were measured on head CT scans: anterior bony width (ABW), bony choanal aperture width (BCAW), right and left posterior bony width (between bone sidewall and nasal cavity septum-RPBW and LPBW). The study group has been divided into 4 categories, depending on child's age. The dimensions measured between bone structures of nasal cavity were statistically significantly lower in comparison to the control group. They did not depend on the sex for ABW, nor on age in groups 7-12 months and < 2 years for BCAW, RPBW and LPBW. The measured dimensions increased with age. In children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis the diameter of pyriform aperture and bony choanal aperture were lower than in controls, what may be described as fronto-orbital anomalies. Morphometric measurements of anthropometric indicators on CT scans could be used as standards in the clinical identification of craniosynostosis type and may help in planning surgical procedures, particularly in the facial skeleton in children.
Project description:Sagittal craniosynostosis is the most common form of craniosynostosis, affecting approximately one in 5,000 newborns. We conducted, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide association study for nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis (sNSC) using 130 non-Hispanic case-parent trios of European ancestry (NHW). We found robust associations in a 120-kb region downstream of BMP2 flanked by rs1884302 (P = 1.13 × 10(-14), odds ratio (OR) = 4.58) and rs6140226 (P = 3.40 × 10(-11), OR = 0.24) and within a 167-kb region of BBS9 between rs10262453 (P = 1.61 × 10(-10), OR = 0.19) and rs17724206 (P = 1.50 × 10(-8), OR = 0.22). We replicated the associations to both loci (rs1884302, P = 4.39 × 10(-31) and rs10262453, P = 3.50 × 10(-14)) in an independent NHW population of 172 unrelated probands with sNSC and 548 controls. Both BMP2 and BBS9 are genes with roles in skeletal development that warrant functional studies to further understand the etiology of sNSC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Craniosynostosis is a premature fusion of 1 or more cranial sutures. It may occur with additional morphological abnormalities (syndromic) or in isolation. Studies suggest that dysregulation of normal cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration has a role in isolated or nonsyndromic craniosynostosis but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this research is to identify genes differentially expressed in prematurely fused human suture compared to patent suture in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. METHODS:Bone fragments from synostosed and patent sutures of 7 infants with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis were collected during surgical release of fused sutures. RNA was isolated from the fragments (7 patent and 7 fused) and global gene expression profiled using the Illumina WGE-DASL assay and HumanRef 8.0 Beadchip. RESULTS:Comparison of mRNA expression in fused and patent suture identified 68 genes significantly differentially expressed and having fold changes ? -2.0 and ? 2.0 with a false discovery rate adjusted P value at .10 and 136 with adjusted P value of 0.15. SFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2) demonstrated the largest decrease in fused sutures. Analysis including only sagittal fused sutures revealed a set of 35 overlapping genes that may be involved in suture patency over all suture types. SPHKAP (sphingosine kinase type 1-interacting protein), a modulator of TGF? signaling, was significant in the sagittal subset. CONCLUSION:Differentially expressed genes were identified in fused suture relative to patent in a nonsyndromic craniosynostosis population. SFRP2 is likely important in suture patency. Genes having significant roles in osteoblastogenesis as negative regulators of canonical Wnt pathway were significantly downregulated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Craniosynostosis (CS), the premature fusion of one or more neurocranial sutures, is associated with approximately 200 syndromes; however, about 65-85% of patients present with no additional major birth defects. METHODS:We conducted targeted next-generation sequencing of 60 known syndromic and other candidate genes in patients with sagittal nonsyndromic CS (sNCS, n?=?40) and coronal nonsyndromic CS (cNCS, n?=?19). RESULTS:We identified 18 previously published and 5 novel pathogenic variants, including three de novo variants. Novel variants included a paternally inherited c.2209C>G:p.(Leu737Val) variant in BBS9 of a patient with cNCS. Common variants in BBS9, a gene required for ciliogenesis during cranial suture development, have been associated with sNCS risk in a previous genome-wide association study. We also identified c.313G>T:p.(Glu105*) variant in EFNB1 and c.435G>C:p.(Lys145Asn) variant in TWIST1, both in patients with cNCS. Mutations in EFNB1 and TWIST1 have been linked to craniofrontonasal and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, respectively; both present with coronal CS. CONCLUSIONS:We provide additional evidence that variants in genes implicated in syndromic CS play a role in isolated CS, supporting their inclusion in genetic panels for screening patients with NCS. We also identified a novel BBS9 variant that further shows the potential involvement of BBS9 in the pathogenesis of CS.