Project description:BACKGROUND:Melioidosis is a potentially fatal bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. The existence of melioidosis in Sri Lanka was once unheard of, and entertaining it as a diagnosis in clinical practice was extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION:In this case report, we describe the clinical, epidemiological, and longitudinal follow-up data of a 58-year-old previously healthy Sinhalese woman who presented to our hospital with protracted febrile illness of 5?weeks' duration, later developing multiple abscesses at different sites of the body. There was a significant delay in confirming the diagnosis of melioidosis by isolating B. pseudomallei from blood and pus cultures. The patient recovered fully with a prolonged course of antibiotics and has remained in good health over the last 13?years without recurrence. Despite being immunocompetent, she had contracted the infection by a brief contact with mud soil in a footpath. CONCLUSIONS:A high index of clinical suspicion along with laboratory support is needed to confirm the diagnosis of melioidosis. Treatment with sensitive antibiotics over a long duration is needed, and longitudinal follow-up is essential to detect recurrences. This case raised awareness and created renewed interest in studies of melioidosis in Sri Lanka.
Project description:Melioidosis, a potentially fatal tropical infection, is said to be underdiagnosed in low-income countries. An increase in melioidosis cases in Sri Lanka allowed us to analyze the relationship among clinical outcome, bacteriology, epidemiology, and geography in the first 108 laboratory-confirmed cases of melioidosis from a nationwide surveillance program. The additional 76 cases of laboratory-confirmed melioidosis confirmed further associations between Burkholderia pseudomallei multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and infection phenotype; ST1137/unifocal bacteremic infection (?2 = 3.86, P < 0.05), ST1136/multifocal infection without bacteremia (?2 = 15.8, P < 0.001), and ST1132/unifocal nonbacteremic infection (?2 = 6.34, P = 0.02). ST1137 infections were predominantly seen in the Western Province, whereas ST1132, 1135, and 1136 infections predominated in the Northwestern Province. Early participating centers in the surveillance program had a lower melioidosis-associated mortality than later participants (?2 = 3.99, P < 0.05). The based upon related sequence types (eBURST) algorithm, a MLST clustering method that infers founding genotypes and patterns of descent for related isolates and clonal complexes in an unrooted tree, showed uneven distribution of sequence types (STs). There was spatial clustering of the commonest STs (ST1132, 1136, and 1137) in the Western, Northwestern, and Central provinces. The recent increase in melioidosis in Sri Lanka uncovered by laboratory-enhanced surveillance is likely to be the result of a combination of improved laboratory detection, increased clinician awareness, recruitment of clinical centers, and small outbreaks. Further development of the surveillance program into a national genotyping-supported melioidosis registry will improve melioidosis diagnosis, treatment, and prevention where underdiagnosis and mortality rates remain high.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Gram-negative soil dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis. The disease is endemic in most parts of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Over last few years, there has been an increase in number of melioidosis cases from India; however the disease epidemiology is less clearly understood. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is a powerful genotypic method used to characterize the genetic diversity of B. Pseudomallei both within and across the geographic regions. METHODS:In this study, MLST analysis was performed on 64 B. pseudomallei clinical isolates. These isolates were obtained between 2008-2014 from southwestern coastal region of India. Broad population patterns of Indian B. pseudomallei isolates in context with isolates of Southeast Asia or global collection was determined using in silico phylogenetic tools. RESULTS:A total of 32 Sequence types (STs) were reported among these isolates of which 17 STs (53%) were found to be novel. ST1368 was found as group founder and the most predominant genotype (n = 11, 17%). Most of the B. pseudomallei isolates reported in this study (or other Indian isolates available in MLST database) clustered in one major group suggesting clonality in Indian isolates; however, there were a few outliers. When analyzed by measure of genetic differentiation (FST) and other phylogenetic tools (e.g. PHYLOViZ), Indian STs were found closer to Southeast Asian isolates than Australian isolates. The phylogenetic analysis further revealed that within Asian clade, Indian isolates grouped more closely with isolates from Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Thailand. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, the results of this study suggest that the Indian B. pseudomallei isolates are closely related with lesser heterogeneity among them and cluster in one major group suggesting clonality of the isolates. However, it appears that there are a few outliers which are distantly related to the majority of Indian STs. Phylogenetic analysis suggest that Indian isolates are closely related to isolates from Southeast Asia, particularly from South Asia.
Project description:<h4>Background?</h4>Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram negative, soil-water saprophytic bacterium endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Australia. Melioidosis is being increasingly diagnosed in other regions like India, China, and Sri Lanka during recent years. The clinical presentation of melioidosis is extremely variable.<h4>Case summary?</h4>We present a case of melioidosis presenting as native valve infective endocarditis with concomitant hepatic and splenic abscesses. This is the second case of melioidosis with infective endocarditis reported from India.<h4>Discussion?</h4>Melioidosis can present with pneumonia, pleural effusion, subcutaneous abscesses, visceral abscesses, osteomyelitis, and septicaemia, but cardiac involvement is rare. Endocarditis due to melioidosis is rare (?1%) and is rarely reported in literature. This case highlights the unusual presentation of this emerging disease.
Project description:PURPOSE:Sri Lanka is endemic to cutaneous leishmaniasis and reported as the latest focus of leishmaniasis in the Asian subcontinent. Annually, the number of leishmaniasis cases is increasing; therefore, more efficient diagnostic tools, treatment methods and effective prevention measures are indispensable. For this reason, many studies were conducted regarding leishmaniasis infections in Sri Lanka; however, some areas need more attention. Thus, in this review, we comprehensively discussed the studies on leishmaniasis carried out in Sri Lanka. METHODS:Published articles on leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka were searched on PubMed, Google Scholar and ResearchGate databases. Inclusion criteria for the articles were based on keyword searches including 'Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka', 'Leishmaniasis vector in Sri Lanka', 'Sandfly species in Sri Lanka', 'Leishmaniasis epidemiology in Sri Lanka' which are publicly accessible as of 15th July 2019. RESULTS:In this study, we evaluated and summarized the leishmaniasis reports in Sri Lanka and mainly focused on clinical presentation of leishmaniasis infection, genetic characteristics of Leishmania donovani Sri Lankan strain, geographical distribution and associated environmental factors, immunological aspects of the infection, vector, reservoir host, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention and control. Furthermore, we identified the areas where further research is needed to fill the essential knowledge gaps. CONCLUSIONS:Leishmaniasis has become a critically important parasitic infection in Sri Lanka, whereas the significant clinical form is cutaneous leishmaniasis. Prevalence of the leishmaniasis infections is reported from all the districts of the country. Therefore, more studies are essential to be carried out to fill the existing knowledge gaps emphasized in this review.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The first case of HIV infection in Sri Lanka was reported in 1987 and at the end of 2018 there were 3500 people living with HIV. There have been commendable efforts made towards the detection, treatment, and prevention of HIV in the country. Even though the genetic diversity of HIV has been shown to affect the parameters ranging from detection to vaccine development, there is no data available with respect to the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Sri Lanka.<h4>Methods</h4>In this report we have performed the ancillary analysis of pol gene region sequences (n = 85) obtained primarily for the purpose of HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping. Briefly, dried blood spot specimens (DBS) collected from HIV-1 infected individuals between December 2015 and August 2018 were subjected to pol gene amplification and sequencing. These pol gene sequences were used to interpret the drug resistance mutation profiles. Further, sequences were subjected to HIV-1 subtyping using REGA 3.0, COMET, jPHMM and, RIP online subtyping tools. Moreover, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was employed to estimate the evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtype C in Sri Lanka.<h4>Results</h4>Our analysis revealed that the majority (51.8%) of pol gene sequences were subtype C. Other than subtype C, there were sequences categorized as subtypes A1, B, D and G. In addition to pure subtypes there were sequences which were observed to be circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and a few of the recombinants were identified as potential unique recombinants (URFs). We also observed the presence of drug resistance mutations in 56 (65.9%) out of 85 sequences. Estimates of the Bayesian evolutionary analysis suggested that the HIV-1 subtype C was introduced to Sri Lanka during the early 1970s (1972.8).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The findings presented here indicate the presence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes and the prevalence of drug resistance mutations in Sri Lanka. The majority of the sequences were subtype C, having their most recent common ancestor traced back to the early 1970s. Continuous molecular surveillance of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology will be crucial to keep track of drug resistance, genetic diversity, and evolutionary history of HIV-1 in Sri Lanka.