Project description:1. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in the foetal, newborn and adult small intestine of rats was studied by determination of cytidine diphosphocholine-1,2-diacylglycerocholine phosphotransferase (cholinephosphotransferase) and acyl-CoA-1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine acyltransferase (lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase) activities and the incorporation of [1-14C]oleic acid into phosphatidylcholine. 2. Cholinephosphotransferase activity was low in foetal jejunum and ileum, increased 3-4 fold in the ileum by 6 days of age and by 12 days in the jejunum. Jejunal activity remained constant throughout weaning; ileal activity gradually decreased to values 25% of that of the jejunum. 3. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase activity was high in foetal jejunum and ileum, decreased 70% immediately after birth in the jejunum and increased to adult values by 12 days of age. Ileal activity decreased by 20% after birth, but decreased more rapidly at weaning to 30% of the activity in jejunum. 4. Initial rates and steady-state incorporation of [1-14C]oleic acid into phosphatidylcholine by jejunal rings of 10 day-old rats exceeded that observed in jejunal rings from adult rats by 2-4-fold. 5. In the postnatal jejunum, neither cholinephosphotransferase and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase activities nor oleic acid incorporation were stimulated by cortisone administration in vivo.
Project description:The isolation of mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe defective in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine is reported. These mutants are choline auxotrophs and fall into two unlinked complementation groups, cho1 and cho2. We also report the analysis of the cho1+ gene, the first structural gene encoding a phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme from S. pombe to be cloned and characterized. The cho1+ gene disruption mutant (cho1Delta) is viable if choline is supplied and resembles the cho1 mutants isolated after mutagenesis. Sequence analysis of the cho1+ gene indicates that it encodes a protein closely related to phospholipid methyltransferases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and rat. Phospholipid methyltransferases encoded by a rat liver cDNA and the S. cerevisiae OPI3 gene are both able to complement the choline auxotrophy of the S. pombe cho1 mutants. These results suggest that both the structure and function of the phospholipid N-methyltransferases are broadly conserved among eukaryotic organisms.
Project description:Replication of positive-strand RNA viruses [(+)RNA viruses] takes place in membrane-bound viral replication complexes (VRCs). Formation of VRCs requires virus-mediated manipulation of cellular lipid synthesis. Here, we report significantly enhanced brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication and much improved cell growth in yeast cells lacking PAH1 (pah1?), the sole yeast ortholog of human LIPIN genes. PAH1 encodes Pah1p (phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase), which converts phosphatidate (PA) to diacylglycerol that is subsequently used for the synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol. Inactivation of Pah1p leads to altered lipid composition, including high levels of PA, total phospholipids, ergosterol ester, and free fatty acids, as well as expansion of the nuclear membrane. In pah1? cells, BMV replication protein 1a and double-stranded RNA localized to the extended nuclear membrane, there was a significant increase in the number of VRCs formed, and BMV genomic replication increased by 2-fold compared to wild-type cells. In another yeast mutant that lacks both PAH1 and DGK1 (encodes diacylglycerol kinase converting diacylglycerol to PA), which has a normal nuclear membrane but maintains similar lipid compositional changes as in pah1? cells, BMV replicated as efficiently as in pah1? cells, suggesting that the altered lipid composition was responsible for the enhanced BMV replication. We further showed that increased levels of total phospholipids play an important role because the enhanced BMV replication required active synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major membrane phospholipid. Moreover, overexpression of a phosphatidylcholine synthesis gene (CHO2) promoted BMV replication. Conversely, overexpression of PAH1 or plant PAH1 orthologs inhibited BMV replication in yeast or Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Competing with its host for limited resources, BMV inhibited host growth, which was markedly alleviated in pah1? cells. Our work suggests that Pah1p promotes storage lipid synthesis and thus represses phospholipid synthesis, which in turn restricts both viral replication and cell growth during viral infection.
Project description:Mutants lacking MalK, a subunit of the binding protein-dependent maltose-maltodextrin transport system, constitutively express the maltose genes. A second site mutation in malI abolishes the constitutive expression. The malI gene (at 36 min on the linkage map) codes for a typical repressor protein that is homologous to the Escherichia coli LacI, GalR, or CytR repressor (J. Reidl, K. Römisch, M. Ehrmann, and W. Boos, J. Bacteriol. 171:4888-4899, 1989). We now report that MalI regulates an adjacent and divergently oriented operon containing malX and malY. MalX encodes a protein with a molecular weight of 56,654, and the deduced amino acid sequence of MalX exhibits 34.9% identity to the enzyme II of the phosphototransferase system for glucose (ptsG) and 32.1% identity to the enzyme II for N-acetylglucosamine (nagE). When constitutively expressed, malX can complement a ptsG ptsM double mutant for growth on glucose. Also, a delta malE malT(Con) strain that is unable to grow on maltose due to its maltose transport defect becomes Mal+ after introduction of malI::Tn10 and the plasmid carrying malX. MalX-mediated transport of glucose and maltose is likely to occur by facilitated diffusion. We conclude that malX encodes a phosphotransferase system enzyme II that can recognize glucose and maltose as substrates even though these sugars may not represent the natural substrates of the system. The second gene in the operon, malY, encodes a protein of 43,500 daltons. Its deduced amino acid sequence exhibits weak homology to aminotransferase sequences. The presence of plasmid-encoded MalX alone was sufficient for complementing growth on glucose in a ptsM ptsG glk mutant, and the plasmid-encoded MalY alone was sufficient to abolish the constitutivity of the mal genes in a malK mutant. The overexpression of malY in a strain that is wild type with respect to the maltose genes strongly interferes with growth on maltose. This is not the case in a malT(Con) strain that expresses the mal genes constitutively. We conclude that malY encodes an enzyme that degrades the inducer of the maltose system or prevents its synthesis.
Project description:The nucleus contains a network of tubular invaginations of the nuclear envelope (NE), termed the nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR), implicated in transport, gene expression, and calcium homeostasis. Here, we show that proliferation of the NR, measured by the frequency of NE invaginations and tubules, is regulated by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-alpha (CCTalpha), the nuclear and rate-limiting enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) synthesis. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells, fatty acids triggered activation and translocation of CCTalpha onto intranuclear tubules characteristic of the NR. This was accompanied by a twofold increase in NR tubules quantified by immunostaining for lamin A/C or the NE. CHO MT58 cells expressing a temperature-sensitive CCTalpha allele displayed reduced PtdCho synthesis and CCTalpha expression and minimal proliferation of the NR in response to oleate compared with CHO MT58 cells stably expressing CCTalpha. Expression of CCTalpha mutants in CHO58 cells revealed that both enzyme activity and membrane binding promoted NR proliferation. In support of a direct role for membrane binding in NR tubule formation, recombinant CCTalpha caused the deformation of liposomes into tubules in vitro. This demonstrates that a key nuclear enzyme in PtdCho synthesis coordinates lipid synthesis and membrane deformation to promote formation of a dynamic nuclear-cytoplasmic interface.
Project description:The gene encoding the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phospholipid deacylation enzyme, phospholipase B (ScPLB1), was successfully expressed in E. coli. The enzyme (Scplb1p) was engineered to have a histidine-tag at the C-terminal end and was purified by metal (Ni) affinity chromatography. Enzymatic properties, optimal pH, and substrate specificity were similar to those reported previously. For example, deacylation activity was observed in acidic pH in the absence of Ca2+ and was additive in neutral pH in the presence of Ca2+, and the enzyme had the same substrate priority as reported previously, with the exception of PE, suggesting that yeast phospholipase B could be produced in its native structure in bacterial cells. Scplb1p retained transacylation activity in aqueous medium, and esterified lysophosphatidylcholine with free fatty acid to form phosphatidylcholine in a non-aqueous, glycerin medium. We propose that phospholipase B could serve as an additional tool for in vitro enzyme-mediated phospholipid synthesis.
Project description:In maize, a series of seed mutants with starchy endosperm could increase the lysine content by decreased amount of zeins, the main storage proteins in endosperm. Cloning and characterization of these mutants could reveal regulatory mechanisms for zeins accumulation in maize endosperm. Opaque7 (o7) is a classic maize starchy endosperm mutant with large effects on zeins accumulation and high lysine content. In this study, the O7 gene was cloned by map-based cloning and confirmed by transgenic functional complementation and RNAi. The o7-ref allele has a 12-bp in-frame deletion. The four-amino-acid deletion caused low accumulation of o7 protein in vivo. The O7 gene encodes an acyl-activating enzyme with high similarity to AAE3. The opaque phenotype of the o7 mutant was produced by the reduction of protein body size and number caused by a decrease in the α-zeins concentrations. Analysis of amino acids and metabolites suggested that the O7 gene might affect amino acid biosynthesis by affecting α-ketoglutaric acid and oxaloacetic acid. Transgenic rice seeds containing RNAi constructs targeting the rice ortholog of maize O7 also produced lower amounts of seed proteins and displayed an opaque endosperm phenotype, indicating a conserved biological function of O7 in cereal crops. The cloning of O7 revealed a novel regulatory mechanism for storage protein synthesis and highlighted an effective target for the genetic manipulation of storage protein contents in cereal seeds.
Project description:The mocC gene encoded by the octopine/mannityl opine-type Ti plasmid pTi15955 is related at the nucleotide sequence level to mas1' encoded by the T region of this plasmid. While Mas1 is required for the synthesis of mannopine (MOP) by crown gall tumor cells, MocC is essential for the utilization of MOP by Agrobacterium spp. A cosmid clone of pTi15955, pYDH208, encodes mocC and confers the utilization of MOP on strain NT1 and on strain UIA5, a derivative of NT1 lacking the 450-kb cryptic plasmid pAtC58. NT1 or UIA5 harboring pYDH208 with an insertion mutation in mocC failed to utilize MOP as the sole carbon source. Plasmid pSa-C, which encodes only mocC, complemented this mutation in both strains. This plasmid also was sufficient to confer utilization of MOP on NT1 but not on UIA5. Computer analysis showed that MocC is related at the amino acid sequence level to members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family of oxidoreductases. Lysates prepared from Escherichia coli cells expressing mocC contained an enzymatic activity that oxidizes MOP to deoxyfructosyl glutamine (santhopine [SOP]) in the presence of NAD+. The reaction catalyzed by the MOP oxidoreductase is reversible; in the presence of NADH, the enzyme reduced SOP to MOP. The apparent Km values of the enzyme for MOP and SOP were 6.3 and 1.2 mM, respectively. Among analogs of MOP tested, only N-1-(1-deoxy-D-lyxityl)-L-glutamine and N-1-(1-deoxy-D-mannityl)-L-asparagine served as substrates for MOP oxidoreductase. These results indicate that mocC encodes an oxidoreductase that, as an oxidase, is essential for the catabolism of MOP. The reductase activity of this enzyme is precisely the reaction ascribed to its T-region-encoded homolog, Mas1, which is responsible for biosynthesis of mannopine in crown gall tumors.
Project description:Steps 6 and 7 of de novo purine synthesis are performed by 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylase (AIRc) and 4-[(N-succinylamino)carbonyl]-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (SAICARs), respectively. In vertebrates, a single gene encodes AIRc-SAICARs with domains homologous to Escherichia coli PurE and PurC. We have isolated an AIRc-SAICARs cDNA from Drosophila melanogaster via functional complementation with an E. coli purC purine auxotroph. This cDNA encodes AIRc yet is unable to complement an E. coli purE mutant, suggesting functional differences between Drosophila and E. coli AIRc. In vertebrates, the AIRc-SAICARs gene shares a promoter region with the gene encoding phosphoribosylamidotransferase, which performs the first step in de novo purine synthesis. In Drosophila, the AIRc-SAICARs gene maps to section 11B4-14 of the X chromosome, while the phosphoribosylamidotransferase gene (Prat) maps to chromosome 3; thus, the close linkage of these two genes is not conserved in flies. Three EMS-induced X-linked adenine auxotrophic mutations, ade4(1), ade5(1), and ade5(2), were isolated. Two gamma-radiation-induced (ade5(3) and ade5(4)) and three hybrid dysgenesis-induced (ade5(5), ade5(6), and ade5(8)) alleles were also isolated. Characterization of the auxotrophy and the finding that the hybrid dysgenesis-induced mutations all harbor P transposon sequences within the AIRc-SAICARs gene show that ade5 encodes AIRc-SAICARs.