Project description:Although a few studies have investigated the intestinal microbiota of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the functional and metabolic mechanisms of the microbes associated with PCOS, as well as potential microbial biomarkers, have not yet been identified. To address this gap, we designed a two-phase experiment in which we performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing and monitored the metabolic parameters, gut-brain mediators, and sex hormones of PCOS patients. In the first stage, we identified an imbalance in the intestinal microbiota of the PCOS patients, observing that Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, and Blautia were significantly more abundant in the control group, whereas Parabacteroides and Clostridium were enriched in the PCOS group. In the second stage, we monitored the impact of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis V9 on the intestinal microbiome, gut-brain mediators, and sex hormones of 14 PCOS patients. Notably, we observed that the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) decreased significantly in 9 volunteers, whereas the levels of sex hormones and intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) increased markedly. In contrast, the changes in the indices mentioned above were indistinct in the remaining 5 volunteers. The results of an analysis of the number of viable Bifidobacterium lactis V9 cells in the two groups were highly consistent with the clinical and SCFA results. Therefore, effective host gut colonization of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis V9 was crucial for its ability to function as a probiotic. Finally, we propose a potential mechanism describing how probiotics regulate the levels of sex hormones by manipulating the intestinal microbiome in PCOS patients. IMPORTANCE Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder among women of reproductive age worldwide. Through a two-phase clinical experiment, we first revealed an imbalance in the intestinal microbiome of PCOS patients. By binning and annotating shotgun metagenomic sequences into metagenomic species (MGS), 61 MGSs were identified as potential PCOS-related microbial biomarkers. In the second stage, we monitored the impact of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis V9 on the intestinal microbiota, metabolic parameters, gut-brain mediators, and sex hormones of PCOS patients. Notably, we observed that the PCOS-related clinical indices and the intestinal microbiotas of the participating patients exhibited an inconsistent response to the intake of the B. lactis V9 probiotic. Therefore, effective host gut colonization of the probiotic was crucial for its ability to function as a probiotic. Finally, we propose a potential mechanism by which B. lactis V9 regulates the levels of sex hormones by manipulating the intestinal microbiome in PCOS patients.
Project description:The human gut microbiome matures towards the adult composition during the first years of life and is implicated in early immune development. Here, we investigate the effects of microbial genomic diversity on gut microbiome development using integrated early childhood data sets collected in the DIABIMMUNE study in Finland, Estonia and Russian Karelia. We show that gut microbial diversity is associated with household location and linear growth of children. Single nucleotide polymorphism- and metagenomic assembly-based strain tracking revealed large and highly dynamic microbial pangenomes, especially in the genus Bacteroides, in which we identified evidence of variability deriving from Bacteroides-targeting bacteriophages. Our analyses revealed functional consequences of strain diversity; only 10% of Finnish infants harboured Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, a subspecies specialized in human milk metabolism, whereas Russian infants commonly maintained a probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum strain in infancy. Groups of bacteria contributing to diverse, characterized metabolic pathways converged to highly subject-specific configurations over the first two years of life. This longitudinal study extends the current view of early gut microbial community assembly based on strain-level genomic variation.
Project description:Accumulated data suggests that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to changes in diet. Consumption of fermented dairy products (FDP) fortified with probiotic microbes may be associated with positive impact on human health. However, the extent and details of the possible impact of FDP consumption on gut community structure tends to vary across individuals. We used microbiome analysis to characterize changes in gut microbiota composition after 30 days of oral intake of a yoghurt fortified with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the gut microbial composition before and after FDP consumption in healthy adults (n = 150). Paired comparison of gut microbial content demonstrated an increase in presence of potentially beneficial bacteria, particularly, Bifidobacterium genus, as well as Adlercreutzia equolifaciens and Slackia isoflavoniconvertens. At a functional level, an increased capacity to metabolize lactose and synthesize amino acids was observed accompanied by a lowered potential for synthesis of lipopolysaccharides. Cluster analysis revealed that study volunteers segregated into two groups with post-intervention microbiota response that was dependent on the baseline microbial community structure.
Project description:The gut microbiome is a dynamic community that significantly affects host health; it is frequently disturbed by medications such as antibiotics. Recently, probiotics have been proposed as a remedy for antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, but the efficacy of such treatments remains uncertain. Thus, the effect of specific antibiotic-probiotic combinations on the gut microbiome and host health warrants further research. We tested the effect vancomycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin on mice. Antibiotic administration was followed by one of the following recovery treatments: Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254 as a probiotic (PR); fecal transplant (FT); or natural recovery (NR). Each antibiotic administration and recovery treatment was repeated three times over 9 weeks. We used the Shannon Index and Chao1 Index to determine gut microbiome diversity and assessed recovery by quantifying the magnitude of microbial shift using the Bray-Curtis Index of Dissimilarity. We determined the community composition by sequencing the V3-V4 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To assess host health, we measured body weight and cecum weight, as well as mRNA expression of inflammation-related genes by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. Our results show that community response varied by the type of antibiotic used, with vancomycin having the most significant effects. As a result, the effect of probiotics and fecal transplants also varied by antibiotic type. For vancomycin, the first antibiotic disturbance substantially increased the relative abundance of inflammatory species in the phylum Proteobacteria, such as Proteus, but the effect of subsequent disturbances was less pronounced, suggesting that the gut microbiome is affected by past disturbance events. Furthermore, although gut microbiome diversity did not recover, probiotic supplementation was effective in limiting cecum size enlargement and colonic inflammation caused by vancomycin. However, for amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin, the relative abundances of proinflammatory species were not greatly affected, and consequently, the effect of probiotic supplementation on community structure, cecum weight, and expression of inflammation-related genes was comparatively negligible. These results indicate that probiotic supplementation is effective, but only when antibiotics cause proinflammatory species-induced gut inflammation, suggesting that the necessity of probiotic supplementation is strongly influenced by the type of disturbance introduced to the community.
Project description:The infant's gut microbiome is generally rich in the Bifidobacterium genus. The mother's milk contains natural prebiotics, called human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), as the third most abundant solid component after lactose and lipids, and of the different gut microbes, infant gut-associated bifidobacteria are the most efficient in assimilating HMOs. Indeed, the fecal concentration of HMOs was found to be negatively correlated with the fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium in infants. Given these results, two HMO molecules, 2'-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-neotetraose, have recently been industrialized to fortify formula milk. As of now, however, our knowledge about the HMO consumption pathways in infant gut-associated bifidobacteria is still incomplete. The recent studies indicate that HMO assimilation abilities significantly vary among different Bifidobacterium species and strains. Therefore, to truly maximize the effects of prebiotic and probiotic supplementation in commercialized formula, we need to understand HMO consumption behaviors of bifidobacteria in more detail. In this review, we summarized how different Bifidobacterium species/strains are equipped with varied gene sets required for HMO assimilation. We then examined the correlation between the abundance of the HMO-related genes and bifidobacteria-rich microbiota formation in the infant gut through data mining analysis of a deposited fecal microbiome shotgun sequencing dataset. Finally, we shortly described future perspectives on HMO-related studies.
Project description:Probiotics are becoming a prevalent supplement to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in infants born preterm. However, little is known about the ability of these live bacterial supplements to colonize the gut or how they affect endogenous bacterial strains and the overall gut community. We capitalized on a natural experiment resulting from a policy change that introduced the use of probiotics to preterm infants in a single Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. We used amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) derived from the v3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the prevalence and abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut of preterm infants who were and were not exposed to a probiotic supplement in-hospital. Infants were followed to 5 months corrected age. In the probiotic-exposed infants, ASVs belonging to species of Bifidobacterium appeared at high relative abundance during probiotic supplementation and persisted for up to 5 months. In regression models that controlled for the confounding effects of age and antibiotic exposure, probiotic-exposed infants had a higher abundance of the suspected probiotic bifidobacteria than unexposed infants. Conversely, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was similar between preterm groups over time. Lactobacillus abundance was inversely related to antibiotic exposure. Furthermore, the overall gut microbial community of the probiotic-exposed preterm infants at term corrected age clustered more closely to samples collected from 10-day old full-term infants than to samples from unexposed preterm infants at term age. In conclusion, routine in-hospital administration of probiotics to preterm infants resulted in the potential for colonization of the gut with probiotic organisms post-discharge and effects on the gut microbiome as a whole. Further research is needed to fully discriminate probiotic bacterial strains from endogenous strains and to explore their functional role in the gut microbiome and in infant health.
Project description:Bifidobacterium species are important commensals capable of dominating the infant gut microbiome, in part by producing acids that suppress growth of other taxa. Bifidobacterium species are less prone to possessing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes (ARGs) than other taxa that may colonize infants. Given that AMR is a growing public health crisis and ARGs are present in the gut microbiome of humans from early life, this study examines the correlation between a Bifidobacterium-dominated infant gut microbiome and AMR levels, measured by a culture-independent metagenomic approach both in early life and as infants become toddlers. In general, Bifidobacterium dominance is associated with a significant reduction in AMR in a Bangladeshi cohort, both in the number of acquired AMR genes present and in the abundance of AMR genes. However, by year 2, Bangladeshi infants had no significant differences in AMR related to their early-life Bifidobacterium levels. A generalized linear model including all infants in a previously published Swedish cohort found a significant negative association between log-transformed total AMR and Bifidobacterium levels, thus confirming the relationship between Bifidobacterium levels and AMR. In both cohorts, there was no change between early-life and later-life AMR abundance in high-Bifidobacterium infants but a significant reduction in AMR abundance in low-Bifidobacterium infants. These results support the hypothesis that early Bifidobacterium dominance of the infant gut microbiome may help reduce colonization by taxa containing ARGs.IMPORTANCE Infants are vulnerable to an array of infectious diseases, and as the gut microbiome may serve as a reservoir of AMR for pathogens, reducing the levels of AMR in infants is important to infant health. This study demonstrates that high levels of Bifidobacterium are associated with reduced levels of AMR in early life and suggests that probiotic interventions to increase infant Bifidobacterium levels have the potential to reduce AMR in infants. However, this effect is not sustained at year 2 of age in Bangladeshi infants, underscoring the need for more detailed studies of the biogeography and timing of infant AMR acquisition.
Project description:Current evidence to support extensive use of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease is limited and factors that contribute to the inconsistent effectiveness of clinical probiotic therapy are not completely known. Here, we used Bifidobacterium longum JDM 301 as a model probiotic to study potential factors that may influence the effect of probiotics in experimental colitis. We found that the effect of B. longum JDM 301 in tempering experimental colitis varied across individual mice even with the same genetic background. The probiotic efficacy was highly correlated with the host gut microbial community features. Consumption of a diet rich in fat could exacerbate mucosal injury-induced colitis but could not change the host responsiveness to B. longum JDM 301 treatment, suggesting of potential mechanistic differences between regulating colitis pathogenesis, and modulating probiotic efficacies by the gut microbiota. Together, our results suggest that personalized microbiome features may modify the probiotic therapeutic effect and support the idea of personalized probiotic medicine in inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:Probiotics have been used in trials to therapeutically modulate the gut microbiome and have shown beneficial effects in cirrhosis. However, their effect on the microbiome of cirrhosis patients is not fully understood yet. Here, we tested the effects of a multispecies probiotic on microbiome composition in compensated cirrhosis. The gut microbiome composition of 58 patients with compensated cirrhosis from a randomized controlled trial who received a daily dose of multispecies probiotics or placebo for six months was analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbiome composition of patients who received probiotics was enriched with probiotic strains and the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Bacteroides vulgatus, Alistipes shahii and a Prevotella species was increased in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group. Patients who had microbiome changes in response to probiotic treatment also showed a significant increase in neopterin and a significant decrease in faecal zonulin levels after intervention, which was not observed in placebo-treated patients or patients with unchanged microbiome compositions. In conclusion, multispecies probiotics may enrich the microbiome of compensated cirrhotic patients with probiotic bacteria during a six-month intervention and beneficially change the residential microbiome and gut barrier function.
Project description:Experimental manipulation of the gut microbiome was found to modify emotional and cognitive behavior, neurotransmitter expression and brain function in rodents, but corresponding human data remain scarce. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study aimed at investigating the effects of 4 weeks' probiotic administration on behavior, brain function and gut microbial composition in healthy volunteers. Forty-five healthy participants divided equally into three groups (probiotic, placebo and no intervention) underwent functional MRI (emotional decision-making and emotional recognition memory tasks). In addition, stool samples were collected to investigate the gut microbial composition. Probiotic administration for 4 weeks was associated with changes in brain activation patterns in response to emotional memory and emotional decision-making tasks, which were also accompanied by subtle shifts in gut microbiome profile. Microbiome composition mirrored self-reported behavioral measures and memory performance. This is the first study reporting a distinct influence of probiotic administration at behavioral, neural, and microbiome levels at the same time in healthy volunteers. The findings provide a basis for future investigations into the role of the gut microbiota and potential therapeutic application of probiotics.