Project description:Gastrointestinal bacteria are essential for host health, and only viable microorganisms contribute to gastrointestinal functions. When evaluating the gut microbiota by next generation sequencing method, dead bacteria, which compose a proportion of gut bacteria, may distort analysis of the live gut microbiota. We collected stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon contents from Rex rabbits. A modified propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment protocol was used to exclude DNA from dead bacteria. Analysis of untreated samples yielded total bacteria, and analysis of PMA-treated samples yielded live bacteria. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to evaluate the live-to-total bacteria ratio and compare the difference between live and total microbiota in the entire digestive tract. A low proportion of live bacteria in the foregut (stomach 1.12%, jejunum 1.2%, ileum 2.84%) and a high proportion of live bacteria in the hindgut (cecum 24.66%, colon 19.08%) were observed. A significant difference existed between total and live microbiota. Clostridiales, Ruminococcaceae, and S24-7 dominated the hindgut of both groups, while Acinetobacter and Cupriavidus dominated only in live foregut microbiota. Clostridiales and Ruminococcaceae abundance decreased, while S24-7 increased in live hindgut microbiota. The alpha- and beta-diversities differed significantly between groups. Analysis of networks showed the mutual relationship between live bacteria differed vastly when compared with total bacteria. Our study revealed a large number of dead bacteria existed in the digestive tract of Rex rabbits and distorted the community profile of the live microbiota. Total bacteria is an improper representation of the live gut microbiota, particularly in the foregut.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To investigate to what extent various oral health variables are associated with taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly. BACKGROUND: Impaired taste may contribute to weight loss in elderly. Many frail elderly have poor oral health characterized by caries, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. However, the possible influence of such factors on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. A total of 174 (55 men) acutely hospitalized elderly, coming from their own homes and with adequate cognitive function, were included. Dental status, decayed teeth, oral bacteria, oral hygiene, dry mouth and tongue changes were recorded. Growth of oral bacteria was assessed with CRT® Bacteria Kit. Taste ability was evaluated with 16 taste strips impregnated with sweet, sour, salty and bitter taste solutions in 4 concentrations each. Correct identification was given score 1, and maximum total taste score was 16. RESULTS: Mean age was 84 yrs. (range 70-103 yrs.). Total taste score was significantly and markedly reduced in patients with decayed teeth, poor oral hygiene, high growth of oral bacteria and dry mouth. Sweet and salty taste were particularly impaired in patients with dry mouth. Sour taste was impaired in patients with high growth of oral bacteria. CONCLUSION: This study shows that taste ability was reduced in acutely hospitalized elderly with caries activity, high growth of oral bacteria, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Our findings indicate that good oral health is important for adequate gustatory function. Maintaining proper oral hygiene in hospitalized elderly should therefore get high priority among hospital staff.
Project description:Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. The diversity and abundance of airborne microbes may be strongly influenced by atmospheric conditions or even influence atmospheric conditions themselves by acting as ice nucleators. However, few comprehensive studies have described the diversity and dynamics of airborne bacteria and fungi based on culture-independent techniques. We document atmospheric microbial abundance, community composition, and ice nucleation at a high-elevation site in northwestern Colorado. We used a standard small-subunit rRNA gene Sanger sequencing approach for total microbial community analysis and a bacteria-specific 16S rRNA bar-coded pyrosequencing approach (4,864 sequences total). During the 2-week collection period, total microbial abundances were relatively constant, ranging from 9.6 x 10(5) to 6.6 x 10(6) cells m(-3) of air, and the diversity and composition of the airborne microbial communities were also relatively static. Bacteria and fungi were nearly equivalent, and members of the proteobacterial groups Burkholderiales and Moraxellaceae (particularly the genus Psychrobacter) were dominant. These taxa were not always the most abundant in freshly fallen snow samples collected at this site. Although there was minimal variability in microbial abundances and composition within the atmosphere, the number of biological ice nuclei increased significantly during periods of high relative humidity. However, these changes in ice nuclei numbers were not associated with changes in the relative abundances of the most commonly studied ice-nucleating bacteria.
Project description:Organic greenhouse farming is an innovative system that may maintain a high yield and healthy agroecosystem. There have been no rigorous studies on the comparison of total and nitrogen-cycling bacterial community in vegetable soils between organic and conventional farming management at large scale. A survey of bacterial community and nitrogen cycles from soils under organic and conventional greenhouse farming was performed at 30 sites, covering seven soil types with 4 to 18 years of organic farming history. Communities of the total, diazotrophs and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were studied with high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA, nifH and amoA genes, respectively. Organic greenhouse farming did not influence alpha diversities. Beta diversities among the total (26/30) and diazotrophic (17/19) bacteria differed between farming systems, but compositional differences in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria between the two farming systems were only detected at 6 sites. Despite the effects of farming system on most bacterial genera were varied across different sites, organic greenhouse farming persistently selected for a few genera, possibly for the biodegradation of organic carbon with high molecular weight (Hyphomicrobium, Rubinisphaera, Aciditerrimonas, Planifilum, Phaselicystis, and Ohtaekwangia), but against putative ammonia oxidizing (Nitrosospira, Nitrosopumilus) and diazotrophic (Bradyrhizobium) bacterial genera, as determined by 16S rRNA analysis. Diazotrophic bacteria affiliated with nifH cluster 1J were preferentially associated with organic greenhouse farming, in contrast to Paenibacillus borealis. In summary, this study provides insights into the complex effects of organic greenhouse farming on the total, diazotrophic and ammonia oxidizing bacterial communities across different environmental context.
2020-01-01 | S-EPMC7434936 | BioStudies
Project description:total soil bacteria from ginger fileds Raw sequence reads
Project description:Crude oil pollution of soil is a serious environmental issue, and bioremediation using plants and microorganisms is a natural and sustainable method for its restoration. Pot incubation of a two-factor randomized block (plants with two levels, and crude oil with three levels) was designed to investigate the rhizosphere bacterial community of Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. Crude oil contamination of soil was studied at different levels: 2 g/kg (low), 4 g/kg (medium), and 6 g/kg (high) levels. In this study, the physicochemical properties of the collected rhizosphere soil were analyzed. Moreover, the soil bacteria were further identified using the 16S rRNA gene. The effects of S. salsa and crude oil and their interaction on the physiochemical properties of the soil and crude oil degradation were found to be significant. Crude oil significantly influenced the diversity and evenness of bacteria, while the effects of S. salsa and interaction with crude oil were not significant. Proteobacteria were found to be dominant at the phylum level. Meanwhile, at the genera level, Saccharibacteria and Alcanivorax increased significantly in the low and medium contamination treatment groups with S. salsa, whereas Saccharibacteria and Desulfuromonas were prevalent in the high contamination treatment group. High crude oil contamination led to a significant decrease in the bacterial diversity in soil, while the effects of S. salsa and its interaction were not significant. Despite the highest abundance of crude oil degradation bacteria, S. salsa reduced crude oil degradation bacteria and increased bacteria related to sulfur, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycling in the low and high contamination group, whereas the opposite effect was observed for the medium contamination treatment group. The abundance of most crude oil degradation bacteria is negatively correlated with crude oil content. Nitrogen cycling bacteria are sensitive to the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen, and pH of the soil. Sulfur cycling bacteria are sensitive to aromatic hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons, and asphaltene in soil. This research is helpful for further studying the mechanism of synergistic degradation by S. salsa and bacteria.
Project description:We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.