Project description:Clavulanic acid is a bacterial specialized metabolite, which inhibits certain serine ?-lactamases, enzymes that inactivate ?-lactam antibiotics to confer resistance. Due to this activity, clavulanic acid is widely used in combination with penicillin and cephalosporin (?-lactam) antibiotics to treat infections caused by ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. Clavulanic acid is industrially produced by fermenting Streptomyces clavuligerus, as large-scale chemical synthesis is not commercially feasible. Other than S. clavuligerus, Streptomyces jumonjinensis and Streptomyces katsurahamanus also produce clavulanic acid along with cephamycin C, but information regarding their genome sequences is not available. In addition, the Streptomyces contain many biosynthetic gene clusters thought to be "cryptic," as the specialized metabolites produced by them are not known. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of S. jumonjinensis and S. katsurahamanus, and examined their metabolomes using untargeted mass spectrometry along with S. clavuligerus for comparison. We analyzed the biosynthetic gene cluster content of the three species to correlate their biosynthetic capacities, by matching them with the specialized metabolites detected in the current study. It was recently reported that S. clavuligerus can produce the plant-associated metabolite naringenin, and we describe more examples of such specialized metabolites in extracts from the three Streptomyces species. Detailed comparisons of the biosynthetic gene clusters involved in clavulanic acid (and cephamycin C) production were also performed, and based on our analyses, we propose the core set of genes responsible for producing this medicinally important metabolite.
Project description:Streptomyces clavuligerus is a filamentous Gram-positive bacterial producer of the ?-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. Antibiotics biosynthesis in the Streptomyces genus is usually triggered by nutritional and environmental perturbations. In this work, a new genome scale metabolic network of Streptomyces clavuligerus was reconstructed and used to study the experimentally observed effect of oxygen and phosphate concentrations on clavulanic acid biosynthesis under high and low shear stress. A flux balance analysis based on experimental evidence revealed that clavulanic acid biosynthetic reaction fluxes are favored in conditions of phosphate limitation, and this is correlated with enhanced activity of central and amino acid metabolism, as well as with enhanced oxygen uptake. In silico and experimental results show a possible slowing down of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) due to reduced oxygen availability in low shear stress conditions. In contrast, high shear stress conditions are connected with high intracellular oxygen availability favoring TCA activity, precursors availability and clavulanic acid (CA) production.
Project description:In Streptomyces clavuligerus, the gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of the clinically used ?-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid contains a gene (orf12 or cpe) encoding a protein with a C-terminal class A ?-lactamase-like domain. The cpe gene is essential for clavulanic acid production, and the recent crystal structure of its product (Cpe) was shown to also contain an N-terminal isomerase/cyclase-like domain, but the function of the protein remains unknown. In the current study, we show that Cpe is a cytoplasmic protein and that both its N- and C-terminal domains are required for in vivo clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. Our results along with those from previous studies allude towards a biosynthetic role for Cpe during the later stages of clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. Amino acids from Cpe essential for biosynthesis were also identified, including one (Lys89) from the recently described N-terminal isomerase-like domain of unknown function. Homologues of Cpe from other clavulanic acid-producing Streptomyces spp. were shown to be functionally equivalent to the S. clavuligerus protein, whereas those from non-producers containing clavulanic acid-like gene clusters were not. The suggested in vivo involvement of an isomerase-like domain recruited by an ancestral ?-lactamase related protein, supports a previous hypothesis that Cpe could be involved in a step requiring the opening and modification of the clavulanic acid core during its biosynthesis from 5S precursors.
Project description:The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a ?-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of ?-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE). Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of ?-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture.
Project description:Streptomyces clavuligerus strain F613-1 is an industrial strain with high-yield clavulanic acid production. In this study, the complete genome sequence of S. clavuligerus strain F613-1 was determined, including one linear chromosome and one linear plasmid, carrying numerous sets of genes involving in the biosynthesis of clavulanic acid.
Project description:Streptomyces clavuligerus is an important industrial strain that produces a number of antibiotics, including clavulanic acid and cephamycin C. A high-quality draft genome sequence of the S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585 strain was produced by employing a hybrid approach that involved Sanger sequencing, Roche/454 pyrosequencing, optical mapping, and partial finishing. Its genome, comprising four linear replicons, one chromosome, and four plasmids, carries numerous sets of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including a variety of antibiotics.
Project description:Genes encoding the proteins required for clavulanic acid biosynthesis and for cephamycin biosynthesis are grouped into a "supercluster" in Streptomyces clavuligerus. Nine open reading frames (ORFs) associated with clavulanic acid biosynthesis were located in a 15-kb segment of the supercluster, including six ORFs encoding known biosynthetic enzymes or regulatory proteins, two ORFs that have been reported previously but whose involvement in clavulanic acid biosynthesis is unclear, and one ORF not previously reported. Evidence for the involvement of these ORFs in clavulanic acid production was obtained by generating mutants and showing that all were defective for clavulanic acid production when grown on starch asparagine medium. However, when five of the nine mutants, including mutants defective in known clavulanic acid biosynthetic enzymes, were grown in a soy-based medium, clavulanic acid-producing ability was restored. This ability to produce clavulanic acid when seemingly essential biosynthetic enzymes have been mutated suggests that paralogous genes encoding functionally equivalent proteins exist for each of the five genes but that these paralogues are expressed only in the soy-based medium. The five genes that have paralogues encode proteins involved in the early steps of the pathway common to the biosynthesis of both clavulanic acid and the other clavam metabolites produced by this organism. No evidence was seen for paralogues of the four remaining genes involved in late, clavulanic acid-specific steps in the pathway.
Project description:Clavulanic acid is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamase enzymes and is of demonstrated value in the treatment of infections by beta-lactam-resistant bacteria. Previously, it was thought that eight contiguous genes within the genome of the producing strain Streptomyces clavuligerus were sufficient for clavulanic acid biosynthesis, because they allowed production of the antibiotic in a heterologous host (K. A. Aidoo, A. S. Paradkar, D. C. Alexander, and S. E. Jensen, p. 219-236, In V. P. Gullo et al., ed., Development in industrial microbiology series, 1993). In contrast, we report the identification of three new genes, orf10 (cyp), orf11 (fd), and orf12, that are required for clavulanic acid biosynthesis as indicated by gene replacement and trans-complementation analysis in S. clavuligerus. These genes are contained within a 3.4-kb DNA fragment located directly downstream of orf9 (cad) in the clavulanic acid cluster. While the orf10 (cyp) and orf11 (fd) proteins show homologies to other known CYP-150 cytochrome P-450 and [3Fe-4S] ferredoxin enzymes and may be responsible for an oxidative reaction late in the pathway, the protein encoded by orf12 shows no significant similarity to any known protein. The results of this study extend the biosynthetic gene cluster for clavulanic acid and attest to the importance of analyzing biosynthetic genes in the context of their natural host. Potential functional roles for these proteins are proposed.
Project description:Streptomyces clavuligerus F613-1 produces a clinically important β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid (CA). The biosynthesis pathway of CA has been basically elucidated, however, the global regulation of CA biosynthesis remains unclear. In order to further elucidate the regulatory mechanism of clavulanic acid synthesis, TCS RS07910/07915 which is next to the CA biosynthetic gene cluster was deleted in Streptomyces clavuligerus. F613-1. Deletion of RS07910/07915 results in decreased the production of CA, but the phenotype was not affected. Both the transcriptome and ChIP-seq data revealed that the TCS RS07910/07915 mainly regulate genes involved in primary metabolism (such as fatty acid degradation, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) metabolism, arginine biosynthesis) and CA biosynthesis. EMSA assays revealed that RS07915 could bind to the promoter fragments of argG, argC, oat1, oat2, ceaS1 and claR in vitro, indicating that RS07915 could direct regulate the biosynthesis genes of arginine and CA. This study indicated that RS07910/07915 is a pleiotropy regulatory TCS, RS07910/07915 could directly affect the biosynthesis of CA, and indirectly affect CA production through affecting primary metabolism of arginine and G3P (precursors of CA). Overall design: mRNA profiles of Streptomyces wild-type and ΔRS07910/07915 mutant strains were generated by deep sequencing
Project description:The Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 glycerol cluster gylR-glpF1K1D1 is induced by glycerol but is not affected by glucose. S. clavuligerus growth and clavulanic acid production are stimulated by glycerol, but this does not occur in a glpK1-deleted mutant. Amplification of glpK1D1 results in transformants yielding larger amounts of clavulanic acid in the wild-type strain and in overproducer S. clavuligerus Gap15-7-30 or S. clavuligerus Delta relA strains.