Project description:The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important phase of microbial community recovery occurs between 15 and 20 years after reclamation.
Project description:Soil microbial communities are suitable soil ecosystem health indicators due to their sensitivity to management practices and role in soil ecosystem processes. Presently, information on structural and functional differentiation of bacterial communities in post-coal mining reclamation soils of South Africa is sparse. Here, bacterial communities in three post-coal mining reclamation soils were investigated using community-level physiological profiling (CLPP), enzyme activities, and next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Inferences were drawn in reference to adjacent unmined soils. CLPP-based species diversity and proportionality did not differ significantly (P?>?0.05) whereas activities of ?-glucosidase, urease and phosphatases were significantly (P?<?0.05) influenced by site and soil history (reclaimed vs unmined). Bacterial communities were influenced (PERMANOVA, P?<?0.05) by soil history and site differences, with several phylotypes differentially abundant between soils. Contrastingly, predicted functional capabilities of bacterial communities were not different (PERMANOVA, P?>?0.05), suggesting redundancy in bacterial community functions between reclamation and unmined soils. Silt content, bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity, Na and Ca significantly influenced soil bacterial communities. Overall, results indicate that bacterial community structure reflects underlying differences between soil ecosystems, and suggest the restoration of bacterial diversity and functions over chronological age in reclamation soils.
Project description:Tideland reclamation has drastic effects on coastal ecosystem involved in soil microorganisms. However, the knowledge regarding temporal variations of microbial community along reclamation chronosequence and their environmental variable predictor is still poorly known. Using Illumina sequencing, we qualified bacterial community composition in soils collected from one tideland and four reclamation stages, i.e. 2-year, 7-year, 19-year and 39-year in Jiangsu, Eastern China. Across all samples, the dominant groups were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidete, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Chloroflexi. Reclamation activity and its histories greatly altered bacterial community structure, and only 0.28% of phylotypes were shared by five soils. Specially, some typical marine bacteria (Gaetulibacter, Alcanivorax …) disappeared in reclamation soils, while other groups (Niabella, Flavisolibacter…) were gradually eminent. Generally, bacterial diversity and richness increased with reclamation histories. Bacterial community was correlated with most of soil physico-chemical properties. Amongst, mean weight diameter of soil aggregates (MWD) was detected as a primary factor predicting bacterial community composition. Together, our results indicated that effects of reclamation on bacterial community varied with diked histories, and MWD was a major factor predicting bacterial community during progressive reclamation. These findings offer predicting case study for understanding the impact of reclamation and its histories on microbial community in a coastal ecosystem.
Project description:The effects of Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) on soil variables after afforestation have been established, but microbial community changes still need to be explored. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we analyzed bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity in soils from three stands of different-aged, designated 12-year-old (PF1), 29-year-old (PF2), and 53-year-old (PF3), on a Chinese pine plantation and from a natural secondary forest (NSF) stand that was almost 80 years old. Abandoned farmland (BL) was also analyzed. Shannon index values of both bacterial and fungal community in PF1 were greater than those in PF2, PF3 and NSF. Proteobacteria had the lowest abundance in BL, and the abundance increased with stand age. The abundance of Actinobacteria was greater in BL and PF1 soils than those in other sites. Among fungal communities, the dominant taxa were Ascomycota in BL and PF1 and Basidiomycota in PF2, PF3 and NSF, which reflected the successional patterns of fungal communities during the development of Chinese pine plantations. Therefore, the diversity and dominant taxa of soil microbial community in stands 12 and 29 years of age appear to have undergone significant changes; afterward, the soil microbial community achieved a relatively stable state. Furthermore, the abundances of the most dominant bacterial and fungal communities correlated significantly with organic C, total N, C:N, available N, and available P, indicating the dependence of these microbes on soil nutrients. Overall, our findings suggest that the large changes in the soil microbial community structure of Chinese pine plantation forests may be attributed to the phyla present (e.g., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) which were affected by soil carbon and nutrients in the Loess Plateau.
Project description:Continuous cropping obstacles severely hindered the sustained development of the ginseng industry. Among the obstacles, an imbalance of soil microbiome community was considered one of the major culprits. The fungal community is an essential part of the soil microbiome community. Extensive characterization of the fungal community composition and variation during ginseng cultivation will help us understand the mechanism underlying continuous cropping obstacles. By using a high-throughput amplicon sequencing method, the non-rhizospheric fungal community of farmland cultivated ginseng of 2 years old (C2) and 5 years old (C5), understory wild ginseng of 15 years old (W15) and 35 years old (W35), fallow fields which have been abandoned for 10 (F10) years were characterized. Farmland cultivated ginseng and understory wild ginseng harbored distinct non-rhizospheric fungal communities, and extension of cultivation periods enlarged the fungal community difference between two cultivation modes. Extended cultivation periods significantly decreased the OTU richness and PD whole tree indices, and OTU number and cultivation periods were negatively correlated. Extension of cultivation periods led to an increased abundance of pathotrophs. Still, the increased abundance of pathotrophs may not be the leading cause of severe continuous cropping obstacles in farmland cultivated ginseng. Compared with understory wild ginseng, farmland cultivated ginseng had a lower abundance of symbiotrophs and a higher abundance of saprotrophs. This changed symbiotrophs/saprotrophs ratio may have some correlation with the severe continuous cropping obstacles that occurred in farmland cultivated ginseng. Fallowing on the fungal community of the non-rhizosphere soil was generally opposite of that of extension of ginseng cultivation periods. The impacts of farmland cultivation on the fungal community of the non-rhizosphere soil can last for decades, even if the following is practiced.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Continuous cropping of ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in farmland for an extended period gives rise to soil-borne disease. The change in soil microbial composition is a major cause of soil-borne diseases and an obstacle to continuous cropping. The impact of cultivation modes and ages on the diversity and composition of the P. ginseng rhizosphere microbial community and technology suitable for cropping P. ginseng in farmland are still being explored.<h4>Methods</h4>Amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS regions were analyzed for microbial community composition and diversity.<h4>Results</h4>The obtained sequencing data were reasonable for estimating soil microbial diversity. We observed significant variations in richness, diversity, and relative abundances of microbial taxa between farmland, deforestation field, and different cultivation years. The bacterial communities of LCK (forest soil where P. ginseng was not grown) had a much higher richness and diversity than those in NCK (farmland soil where P. ginseng was not grown). The increase in cultivation years of P. ginseng in farmland and deforestation field significantly changed the diversity of soil microbial communities. In addition, the accumulation of P. ginseng soil-borne pathogens (Monographella cucumerina, Ilyonectria mors-panacis, I. robusta, Fusarium solani, and Nectria ramulariae) varied with the cropping age of P. ginseng.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Soil microbial diversity and function were significantly poorer in farmland than in the deforestation field and were affected by P. ginseng planting years. The abundance of common soil-borne pathogens of P. ginseng increased with the cultivation age and led to an imbalance in the microbial community.
Project description:In the present paper, we investigated the effects of afforestation on nitrogen fractions and microbial communities. A total of 24 soil samples were collected from farmland (FL) and three afforested lands, namely Robinia pseudoacacia L (RP), Caragana korshinskii Kom (CK), and abandoned land (AL), which have been arable for the past 40 years. Quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes were used to analyze soil bacterial abundance, diversity, and composition. Additionally, soil nitrogen (N) stocks and fractions were estimated. The results showed that soil N stock, N fractions, and bacterial abundance and diversity increased following afforestation. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of soil bacterial compositions. Overall, soil bacterial compositions generally changed from Actinobacteria (Acidobacteria)-dominant to Proteobacteria-dominant following afforestation. Soil N fractions, especially for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), were significantly correlated with most bacterial groups and bacterial diversity, while potential competitive interactions between Proteobacteria (order Rhizobiales) and Cyanobacteria were suggested. In contrast, nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) influenced soil bacterial compositions less than other N fractions. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that bacterial diversity and specific species respond to farmland-to-forest conversion and hence have the potential to affect N dynamic processes in the Loess Plateau.
Project description:In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human over activity. One of the reasons for this condition is that croplands have been abandoned after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these croplands present heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, we assessed the molecular ecology of total and free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities in soils from steppe grasslands and croplands that were abandoned for different periods (1, 5, and 25 years) and compared the degree of recovery. The abandoned croplands included in the study were natural restoration areas without human activity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze the nifH and 16S rRNA genes to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. The diversities of free-living nitrogen fixers and total bacteria were significantly different between each site (P<0.001). Neither the total bacteria nor nifH gene community structure of a cropland abandoned for 25 years was significantly different from those of steppe grasslands. In contrast, results of qPCR analysis of free-living nitrogen fixers and total bacteria showed significantly high abundance levels in steppe grassland (P<0.01 and P<0.03, respectively). In this study, the microbial communities and their gene abundances were assessed in croplands that had been abandoned for different periods. An understanding of how environmental factors and changes in microbial communities affect abandoned croplands could aid in appropriate soil management to optimize the structures of soil microorganisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND: As the largest low-latitude permafrost region, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an important part of the earth's terrestrial ecosystem and one of the most vulnerable areas to climate change and human activities. However, to the best of our knowledge, the bacterial communities in TP soils and their roles in biogeochemical cycles remain limited. RESULTS: In this study, we report the bacterial community structure and function as well as their correlation with environmental factors in TP major ecosystems (farmland, alpine meadow and oligosaline lake) by using metagenomic approaches. Compared with other soil samples in various environments, TP soils share a core set of microorganisms with a distinct abundance and composition. Among TP soil samples, the taxonomic and functional composition of bacterial communities among the upper (3-5 cm) and lower (18-20 cm) soils of farmland sites were highly similar, whereas the dissimilarities within alpine meadow samples were significantly greater than among farmland samples. A similar pattern was observed in elements cycles and pathways associated with adaption to environment and land use types. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in most of farmland and alpine meadow soil samples were also significantly correlated with geogenic variables. Specifically, the root-nodule bacteria are negatively correlated with the soil moisture and pH, while Thiobacillus associated with sulfur cycles show potential responses to low temperature and intense UV radiation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the bacterial community structure and functions in TP soils were influenced by both human activities and soil environmental properties, and that the bacterial communities appeared to be more homogenized in the farmland soils compared with pristine alpine meadows.