Project description:Bryozoans are sessile, filter-feeding, and colony-building invertebrate organisms. Fredericella sultana is a well known primary host of the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. There have been no attempts to identify the cellular responses induced in F. sultana during the T. bryosalmonae development. We therefore performed transcriptome analysis with the aim of identifying candidate genes and biological pathways of F. sultana involved in the response to T. bryosalmonae. A total of 1166 differentially up- and downregulated genes were identified in the infected F. sultana. Gene ontology of biological processes of upregulated genes pointed to the involvement of the innate immune response, establishment of protein localization, and ribosome biogenesis, while the downregulated genes were involved in mitotic spindle assembly, viral entry into the host cell, and response to nitric oxide. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 signaling was identified as a top canonical pathway and MYCN as a top upstream regulator in the differentially expressed genes. Our study provides the first transcriptional profiling data on the F. sultana zooid's response to T. bryosalmonae. Pathways and upstream regulators help us to understand the complex interplay in the infected F. sultana. The results will facilitate the elucidation of innate immune mechanisms of bryozoan and will lay a foundation for further analyses on bryozoan-responsive candidate genes, which will be an important resource for the comparative analysis of gene expression in bryozoans.
Project description:<i>Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae,</i> a myxozoan endoparasite, causes proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. The life cycle of <i>T. bryosalmonae</i> occurs between invertebrate bryozoan and vertebrate fish hosts. <i>T. bryosalmonae</i> develops in the body cavity of colonial bryozoan and spores are released from mature spore sacs into the water likely through the vestibular pore and infect fish by attaching to their gills. However, very little is known about the transcriptome of this important parasite, which hampers studies into the molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and understanding the parasite biology. In order to circumvent this limitation, we performed <i>de novo</i> transcriptome assembly on the sacs of <i>T. bryosalmonae</i>, collected from infected bryozoan <i>Fredericella sultana</i>. A total of 111.5 million filtered paired-end reads was obtained and assembled into 25,908 contigs corresponding to putative transcripts that were functionally annotated. More than 50% of the assembled transcripts (13,071 contigs) had a significant hit in NCBI non-redundant database. Based on Gene ontology annotation, the most highly scored categories of molecular function of the contigs were related to binding and catalytic activities in <i>T. bryosalmonae</i>. This study provides a global overview of the <i>T. bryosalmonae</i> transcriptome that will be a valuable resource for identifying virulence factors, gene discovery, genome annotation, and vaccine development applications. This data is accessible via NCBI BioProject (PRJNA680464).
Project description:Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrate moss animals that are found worldwide. Fredericella sultana is a freshwater bryozoan and is the most common primary host of myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. However, limited genomic resources are available for this bryozoan, which hampers investigations into the molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interactions. To better understand these interactions, there is a need to build a transcriptome dataset of F. sultana, for functional genomics analysis by large-scale RNA sequencing. Total RNA was extracted from zooids of F. sultana cultivated under controlled laboratory conditions. cDNA libraries were prepared and were analyzed by the Illumina paired-ends sequencing. The sequencing data were used for de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation. Approximately 118 million clean reads were obtained, and assembled into 85,544 contigs with an average length of 852 bp, an N50 of 1,085 bp, and an average GC content 51.4%. A total of 23,978 (28%) contigs were annotated using BLASTX analysis. Of these transcripts, 4,400 contigs had highest similarity to brachiopod species Lingula anatina. Based on Gene ontology (GO) annotation, the most highly scored categories of biological process were categorized into cellular process (27%), metabolic process (24%), and biological regulation (8%) in the transcriptome of F. sultana. This study gives first insights into the transcriptome of F. sultana and provides comprehensive genetic resources for the species. We believe that the transcriptome of F. sultana will serve as a useful genomic dataset to accelerate research of functional genomics and will help facilitate whole genome sequencing and annotation. Candidate genes potentially involved in growth, proteolysis, and stress/immunity-response were identified, and are worthy of further investigation.
Project description:Contemporary and historical bryozoan records were compiled to provide a comprehensive checklist of species in Scottish waters. The checklist comprises 218 species in 58 families, with representatives from each of the extant bryozoan orders. The fauna was relatively sparse compared to other regions for which bryozoan checklists were available e.g. New Zealand and Australia. Six non-indigenous bryozoan species from the Scottish seas region were included in the checklist. Baseline information on species distributions, such as that presented in this checklist, can be used to monitor and manage the impact of human activities on the marine environment, and ultimately preserve marine biodiversity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bryozoa is a clade of aquatic protostomes. The bryozoan life cycle typically comprises a larval stage, which metamorphoses into a sessile adult that proliferates by asexual budding to form colonies. The homology of bryozoan larvae with other protostome larvae is enigmatic. Bryozoan larvae exhibit blastemic tissues that contribute to build the adult during morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if the cells of these tissues are pre-determined according to their future fate or if the cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent stem cells. Gene expression studies can help to identify molecular patterning of larval and adult tissues and enlighten the evolution of bryozoan life cycle stages. RESULTS:We investigated the spatial expression of 13 developmental genes in the larval stage of the gymnolaemate bryozoan Bugula neritina. We found most genes expressed in discrete regions in larval blastemic tissues that form definitive components of the adult body plan. Only two of the 13 genes, BnTropomyosin and BnFoxAB, were exclusively expressed in larval tissues that are discarded during metamorphosis. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the larval blastemas in Bugula are pre-patterned according to their future fate in the adult. The gene expression patterns indicate that some of the bryozoan blastemas can be interpreted to correspond to homologous adult tissues of other animals. This study challenges an earlier proposed view that metazoan larvae share homologous undifferentiated "set-aside cells", and instead points to an independent origin of the bryozoan larval stage with respect to other lophotrochozoans.
Project description:Bryozoans are a diverse phylum of marine and freshwater colonial invertebrates containing approximately 6,300 described living species. Bryozoans grow by budding new physiologically connected colony members (zooids) from a founding individual that forms from a metamorphosed larva. In some species these zooids come in different shapes and sizes and are specialized to serve different tasks within the colony. A complex interaction of genotype, environment, and developmental pathway shapes zooid fate, however, the specific mechanisms underlying the establishment of this division of labor remain unknown. Here, the first characterization of differential gene expression between polymorphic zooids of a bryozoan colony is presented. The development of different zooid types of lab-cultured Bugulina stolonifera colonies including feeding autozooids, avicularia (derived non-feeding zooids that are homologous to feeding autozooids but shaped like a bird's beak), and rhizoids (a branching network of non-feeding anchoring zooids) was explored using RNA sequencing, de novo transcriptome assembly, and differential gene expression analyses. High throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries yielded an average of 14.9 ± 1.3 (SE) million high-quality paired-end reads per sample. Data for the first de novo transcriptome assemblies of B. stolonifera and the first characterization of genes involved in the formation and maintenance of zooid types within a bryozoan colony are presented. In a comparison between autozooid and avicularium tissues, 1,097 significant differentially expressed genes were uncovered. This work provides a much-needed foundation for understanding the mechanisms involved in the development of polymorphic zooids and the establishment of division of labor in bryozoans.
Project description:A novel brominated alkaloid, Securidine A, was isolated from the cold water marine bryozoan <i>Securiflustra securifrons</i>. Securidine A was isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and the structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The isolated Securidine A was tested for cytotoxic, antibacterial, and anti-diabetic activities as well as for its potential for inhibition of biofilm formation. No significant biological activity was observed in the applied bioassays, thus expanded bioactivity profiling is required, in order to reveal any potential applications for Securidine A.
Project description:Frame-building bryozoans occasionally occur in sufficient densities in New Zealand waters to generate habitat for other macrofauna. The environmental conditions necessary for bryozoans to generate such habitat, and the distributions of these species, are poorly known. Bryozoan-generated habitats are vulnerable to bottom fishing, so knowledge of species' distributions is essential for management purposes. To better understand these distributions, presence records were collated and mapped, and habitat suitability models were generated (Maxent, 1 km(2) grid) for the 11 most common habitat-forming bryozoan species: Arachnopusia unicornis, Cellaria immersa, Cellaria tenuirostris, Celleporaria agglutinans, Celleporina grandis, Cinctipora elegans, Diaperoecia purpurascens, Galeopsis porcellanicus, Hippomenella vellicata, Hornera foliacea, and Smittoidea maunganuiensis. The models confirmed known areas of habitat, and indicated other areas as potentially suitable. Water depth, vertical water mixing, tidal currents, and water temperature were useful for describing the distribution of the bryozoan species at broad scales. Areas predicted as suitable for multiple species were identified, and these 'hotspots' were compared to fishing effort data. This showed a potential conflict between fishing and the conservation of bryozoan-generated habitat. Fishing impacts are known from some sites, but damage to large areas of habitat-forming bryozoans is likely to have occurred throughout the study area. In the present study, spatial error associated with the use of historic records and the coarse native resolution of the environmental variables limited both the resolution at which the models could be interpreted and our understanding of the ecological requirements of the study species. However, these models show species distribution modelling has potential to further our understanding of habitat-forming bryozoan ecology and distribution. Importantly, comparisons between hotspots of suitable habitat and the distribution of bottom fishing in the study area highlight the need for management measures designed to mitigate the impact of seafloor disturbance on bryozoan-generated habitat in New Zealand waters.
Project description:Associations of various invertebrate species with bryozoans and sponges are a well-known marine phenomenon but such epizooic communities are far less diverse in freshwater environments. Here an occurrence of numerous leeches Alboglossiphoniacf.papillosa (Braun, 1805), in interstitial spaces between zooids of a colony of the freshwater bryozoan species Plumatellaaff.fungosa (Pallas, 1768) in Eastern Siberia is described. To the best of our knowledge, this record appears to be the first known example of a leech-bryozoan association, although such relationships deserve further research.
Project description:The bryozoan Bugula neritina has a biphasic life cycle that consists of a planktonic larval stage and a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transition between these two stages is crucial for the development and recruitment of B. neritina. Metamorphosis in B. neritina is mediated by both the nervous system and the release of developmental signals. However, no research has been conducted to investigate the expression of neuropeptides (NP)/peptide hormones in B. neritina larvae. Here, we report a comprehensive study of the NP/peptide hormones in the marine bryozoan B. neritina based on in silico identification methods. We recovered 22 transcripts encompassing 11 NP/peptide hormone precursor transcript sequences. The transcript sequences of the 11 isolated NP precursors were validated by cDNA cloning using gene-specific primers. We also examined the expression of three peptide hormone precursor transcripts (BnFDSIG, BnILP1, BnGPB) in the coronate larvae of B. neritina, demonstrating their distinct expression patterns in the larvae. Overall, our findings serve as an important foundation for subsequent investigations of the peptidergic control of bryozoan larval behavior and settlement.