Project description:Translational control plays a central role in regulation of gene expression and can lead to significant divergence between mRNA- and protein-abundance. Here, we used genome-wide approaches combined with time-course analysis to measure the mRNA-abundance, mRNA-translation rate and protein expression during the transition of naïve-to-primed mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We find that the ground state ESCs cultured with GSK3-, MEK-inhibitors and LIF (2iL) display higher ribosome density on a selective set of mRNAs. This set of mRNAs undergo strong translational buffering to maintain stable protein expression levels in 2iL-ESCs. Importantly, we show that the global alteration of cellular proteome during the transition of naïve-to-primed pluripotency is largely accompanied by transcriptional rewiring. Thus, we provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the global changes in gene expression in different states of ESCs and dissect the relative contributions of mRNA-transcription, translation and regulation of protein stability in controlling protein abundance.
Project description:Translational control plays a central role in regulation of gene expression and can lead to significant divergence between mRNA- and protein-abundance. The translational landscape of early mammalian development and its impact on cellular proteome, however, remains largely un-explored. Here we used genome-wide approaches combined with time-course analysis to measure the mRNA-abundance, mRNA-translation rate and protein expression during the transition of naïve into primed embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We found that the ground state ESCs cultured with GSK3- and MEK-inhibitors and LIF (2iL) display higher ribosome density on a selective set of mRNAs. These mRNAs show reduced translation during the exit from ground state pluripotency and transition to serum/LIF (SL) culture or upon commitment to primed epiblast-like stem cells (EpiLSCs). Strikingly, integrative analysis with cellular proteome indicate a strong translational buffering of this set of mRNAs in 2iL-ESCs leading to stable protein expression levels. Our data reveal that the global alteration of cellular proteome is largely accompanied by transcriptional rewiring. Furthermore, we identified a set of genes (including UHRF1 and KRAS) that undergo selective post-translational regulation during the transition of naïve into primed pluripotency and linked the observed changes to upstream GSK- and MEK/MAPK-signaling pathways using single inhibitor treated ESCs. Thus, we provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the global changes in gene expression during the transition of naïve to primed pluripotency and dissect the relative contributions of RNA-transcription, translation and regulation of protein stability in controlling protein abundance.
Project description:Ground-state pluripotency is a cell state in which pluripotency is established and maintained through efficient repression of endogenous differentiation pathways. Self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are influenced by ESC-associated microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the "miRNome" of ESCs cultured under conditions favoring ground-state pluripotency. We found that ground-state ESCs express a distinct set of miRNAs compared with ESCs grown in serum. Interestingly, most "ground-state miRNAs" are encoded by an imprinted region on chromosome 12 within the Dlk1-Dio3 locus. Functional analysis revealed that ground-state miRNAs embedded in the Dlk1-Dio3 locus (miR-541-5p, miR-410-3p, and miR-381-3p) promoted pluripotency via inhibition of multi-lineage differentiation and stimulation of self-renewal. Overall, our results demonstrate that ground-state pluripotency is associated with a unique miRNA signature, which supports ground-state self-renewal by suppressing differentiation.
Project description:The cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif) sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells by activating Jak kinase and the transcription factor Stat3. Here we investigate whether Jak/Stat3 may also contribute to induction of pluripotency. EpiSCs derived from postimplantation embryos express low levels of Lif receptor and Stat3. We introduced into EpiSCs a Jak/Stat3 activating receptor (GY118F) responsive to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf). On transfer to ground state culture, in which MAPK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase are inhibited, Gcsf induced transcriptional resetting and functional reprogramming. Activation of a tamoxifen-regulatable fusion, Stat3ER(T2), also converted EpiSCs into chimera-competent iPSCs. We exploited GY118F to increase Jak/Stat3 activity during somatic cell reprogramming. Incompletely reprogrammed cells derived from neural stem cells or fibroblasts responded to Gcsf with elevated frequencies of progression to ground state pluripotency. These findings indicate that Jak/Stat3 participate directly in molecular reprogramming and that activation of this pathway is a limiting component.
Project description:Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) occupy a spectrum of reversible molecular states ranging from a naive ground-state in 2i, to metastable embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in serum, to lineage-primed epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). To investigate the role of DNA methylation (5mC) across distinct pluripotent states, we mapped genome-wide 5mC and 5-hydroxymethycytosine (5hmC) in multiple PSCs. Ground-state ESCs exhibit an altered distribution of 5mC and 5hmC at regulatory elements and dramatically lower absolute levels relative to ESCs in serum. By contrast, EpiSCs exhibit increased promoter 5mC coupled with reduced 5hmC, which contributes to their developmental restriction. Switch to 2i triggers rapid onset of both the ground-state gene expression program and global DNA demethylation. Mechanistically, repression of de novo methylases by PRDM14 drives DNA demethylation at slow kinetics, whereas TET1/TET2-mediated 5hmC conversion enhances both the rate and extent of hypomethylation. These processes thus act synergistically during transition to ground-state pluripotency to promote a robust hypomethylated state.
Project description:Current human pluripotent stem cells lack the transcription factor circuitry that governs the ground state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC). Here, we report that short-term expression of two components, NANOG and KLF2, is sufficient to ignite other elements of the network and reset the human pluripotent state. Inhibition of ERK and protein kinase C sustains a transgene-independent rewired state. Reset cells self-renew continuously without ERK signaling, are phenotypically stable, and are karyotypically intact. They differentiate in vitro and form teratomas in vivo. Metabolism is reprogrammed with activation of mitochondrial respiration as in ESC. DNA methylation is dramatically reduced and transcriptome state is globally realigned across multiple cell lines. Depletion of ground-state transcription factors, TFCP2L1 or KLF4, has marginal impact on conventional human pluripotent stem cells but collapses the reset state. These findings demonstrate feasibility of installing and propagating functional control circuitry for ground-state pluripotency in human cells.
Project description:Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are locked into self-renewal by shielding from inductive cues. Release from this ground state in minimal conditions offers a system for delineating developmental progression from naïve pluripotency. Here, we examine the initial transition process. The ES cell population behaves asynchronously. We therefore exploited a short-half-life Rex1::GFP reporter to isolate cells either side of exit from naïve status. Extinction of ES cell identity in single cells is acute. It occurs only after near-complete elimination of naïve pluripotency factors, but precedes appearance of lineage specification markers. Cells newly departed from the ES cell state display features of early post-implantation epiblast and are distinct from primed epiblast. They also exhibit a genome-wide increase in DNA methylation, intermediate between early and late epiblast. These findings are consistent with the proposition that naïve cells transition to a distinct formative phase of pluripotency preparatory to lineage priming.
Project description:The ground state of pluripotency is defined as a minimal unrestricted state as present in the Inner Cell Mass (ICM). Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) grown in a defined serum-free medium with two kinase inhibitors (‘2i’) reflect this state, whereas ESCs grown in the presence of serum (‘serum’) share more similarities with post implantation epiblast cells. Pluripotency results from an intricate interplay between cytoplasmic, nuclear and chromatin-associated proteins. Therefore, quantitative information on the (sub)cellular proteome is essential to gain insight in the molecular mechanisms driving different pluripotent states. Here, we describe a full SILAC workflow and quality controls for proteomic comparison of 2i and serum ESCs. We demonstrate that this workflow is applicable for subcellular proteomics of the cytoplasm, nuclear and chromatin. The obtained quantitative information revealed increased levels of naïve pluripotency factors on the chromatin of 2i ESCs. Further, we demonstrate that these pluripotent states are supported by distinct metabolic programs, which include upregulation of free radical buffering by the glutathione pathway in 2i ESCs. Through induction of intracellular radicals, we show that the altered metabolic environment renders 2i ESCs less sensitive to oxidative stress. Altogether, this work provides novel insights into the proteome landscape underlying ground state pluripotency.