Project description:To investigate the contribution of parental genomes to early embryogenesis, we systematically profiled the single-cell transcriptomes of human biparental and uniparental embryos from one-cell to morula stages. We observed that uniparental embryos exhibit variable and overall less activation patterns of embryonic genome activation (EGA). Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 807 maternally biased expressed genes (MBGs) and 581 paternally biased expressed genes (PBGs) in preimplantation stages. MBGs became obviously appeared at the four-cell stage and contribute to EGA initiation, whereas PBGs preferentially appeared at the eight-cell stage, and possibly affect embryo compaction and trophectoderm specification. Regulatory network analysis revealed DUX4, EGR2 and DUXA as key transcription factors for MBGs expression as well as ZNF263 and KLF3 for PBGs expression. Furthermore, we revealed that the expression of MBGs and PBGs，especially PBGs, probably due to DNA methylation differences between the parental genomes. Together, our results provide a valuable resource to understand parental genome activation and may help to dissect parent-of-origin effect on early human development. Overall design: We performed a comprehensively survey of methylation levels between biparental and uniparental embryos by single embryo whole genome bisulfite-seq. BI: biparental, AG: androgenetic, PG: parthenogenetic
Project description:To investigate the contribution of parental genomes to early embryogenesis, we systematically profiled the single-cell transcriptomes of human biparental and uniparental embryos from one-cell to morula stages. We observed that uniparental embryos exhibit variable and overall less activation patterns of embryonic genome activation (EGA). Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 807 maternally biased expressed genes (MBGs) and 581 paternally biased expressed genes (PBGs) in preimplantation stages. MBGs became obviously appeared at the four-cell stage and contribute to EGA initiation, whereas PBGs preferentially appeared at the eight-cell stage, and possibly affect embryo compaction and trophectoderm specification. Regulatory network analysis revealed DUX4, EGR2 and DUXA as key transcription factors for MBGs expression as well as ZNF263 and KLF3 for PBGs expression. Furthermore, we revealed that the expression of MBGs and PBGs especially PBGs, probably due to DNA methylation differences between the parental genomes. Together, our results provide a valuable resource to understand parental genome activation and may help to dissect parent-of-origin effect on early human development. Overall design: We performed a comprehensively survey of transcriptional activities between biparental and uniparental embryos by single-cell RNA sequencing BI: biparental, AG: androgenetic, PG: parthenogenetic
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pigs are important animals for agricultural and biomedical research, and improvement is needed for use of the assisted reproductive technologies. Determining underlying mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming in the early stage of preimplantation embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenesis, and androgenesis will not only contribute to assisted reproductive technologies of pigs but also will shed light into early human development. However, the reprogramming of three-dimensional architecture of chromatin in this process in pigs is poorly understood. RESULTS:We generate three-dimensional chromatin profiles for pig somatic cells, IVF, parthenogenesis, and androgenesis preimplantation embryos. We find that the chromosomes in the pig preimplantation embryos are enriched for superdomains, which are more rare in mice. However, p(s) curves, compartments, and topologically associated domains (TADs) are largely conserved in somatic cells and are gradually established during preimplantation embryogenesis in both mammals. In the uniparental pig embryos, the establishment of chromatin architecture is highly asynchronized at all levels from IVF embryos, and a remarkably strong decompartmentalization is observed during zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Finally, chromosomes originating from oocytes always establish TADs faster than chromosomes originating from sperm, both before and during ZGA. CONCLUSIONS:Our data highlight a potential unique 3D chromatin pattern of enriched superdomains in pig preimplantation embryos, an unusual decompartmentalization process during ZGA in the uniparental embryos, and an asynchronized TAD reprogramming between maternal and paternal genomes, implying a severe dysregulation of ZGA in the uniparental embryos in pigs.
Project description:Identifying loci with parental differences in DNA methylation is key to unraveling parent-of-origin phenotypes. By conducting a MeDIP-Seq screen in maternal-methylation free postimplantation mouse embryos (Dnmt3L-/+), we demonstrate that maternal-specific methylation exists very scarcely at midgestation. We reveal two forms of oocyte-specific methylation inheritance: limited to preimplantation, or with longer duration, i.e. maternally imprinted loci. Transient and imprinted maternal germline DMRs (gDMRs) are indistinguishable in gametes and preimplantation embryos, however, de novo methylation of paternal alleles at implantation delineates their fates and acts as a major leveling factor of parent-inherited differences. We characterize two new imprinted gDMRs, at the Cdh15 and AK008011 loci, with tissue-specific imprinting loss, again by paternal methylation gain. Protection against demethylation after fertilization has been emphasized as instrumental in maintaining parent-of-origin methylation inherited from the gametes. Here we provide evidence that protection against de novo methylation acts as an equal major pivot, at implantation and throughout life.
Project description:Gene expression from both parental genomes is required for completion of embryogenesis. Differential methylation of each parental genome has been observed in mouse and human preimplantation embryos. It is possible that these differences in methylation affect the level of gene transcripts from each parental genome in early developing embryos. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a parent-specific pattern of BRCA1 expression in human embryos and to examine if this affects embryo development when the embryo carries a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic mutation. Differential parental expression of ACTB, SNRPN, H19 and BRCA1 was semi-quantitatively analysed by minisequencing in 95 human preimplantation embryos obtained from 15 couples undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis. BRCA1 was shown to be differentially expressed favouring the paternal transcript in early developing embryos. Methylation-specific PCR showed a variable methylation profile of BRCA1 promoter region at different stages of embryonic development. Embryos carrying paternally inherited BRCA1 or 2 pathogenic variants were shown to develop more slowly compared with the embryos with maternally inherited BRCA1 or 2 pathogenic mutations. This study suggests that differential demethylation of the parental genomes can influence the early development of preimplantation embryos. Expression of maternal and paternal genes is required for the completion of embryogenesis.
Project description:X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the mammalian mechanism that compensates for the difference in gene dosage between XX females and XY males. Genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms induce transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome in female cells. In mouse embryos, XCI is initiated at the preimplantation stage following early whole-genome activation. It is widely thought that human embryos do not employ XCI prior to implantation. Here, we show that female preimplantation embryos have a progressive accumulation of XIST RNA on one of the two X chromosomes, starting around the 8-cell stage. XIST RNA accumulates at the morula and blastocyst stages and is associated with transcriptional silencing of the XIST-coated chromosomal region. These findings indicate that XCI is initiated in female human preimplantation-stage embryos and suggest that preimplantation dosage compensation is evolutionarily conserved in placental mammals.
Project description:DNA methylation reprogramming plays important roles in mammalian embryogenesis. Mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with reprogramming defects fail to develop. Thus, we compared DNA methylation reprogramming in preimplantation embryos from bovine SCNT and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and analyzed the influence of vitamin C (VC) on the reprogramming of DNA methylation. The results showed that global DNA methylation followed a typical pattern of demethylation and remethylation in IVF preimplantation embryos; however, the global genome remained hypermethylated in SCNT preimplantation embryos. Compared with the IVF group, locus DNA methylation reprogramming showed three patterns in the SCNT group. First, some pluripotency genes (POU5F1 and NANOG) and repeated elements (satellite I and ?-satellite) showed insufficient demethylation and hypermethylation in the SCNT group. Second, a differentially methylated region (DMR) of an imprint control region (ICR) in H19 exhibited excessive demethylation and hypomethylation. Third, some pluripotency genes (CDX2 and SOX2) were hypomethylated in both the IVF and SCNT groups. Additionally, VC improved the DNA methylation reprogramming of satellite I, ?-satellite and H19 but not that of POU5F1 and NANOG in SCNT preimplantation embryos. These results indicate that DNA methylation reprogramming was aberrant and that VC influenced DNA methylation reprogramming in SCNT embryos in a locus-specific manner.
Project description:There is evidence that expression and methylation of the imprinted paternally expressed gene 1/mesoderm-specific transcript homologue (PEG1/MEST) gene may be affected by assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and infertility. In this study, we sought to assess the imprinting status of the MEST gene in a large cohort of in vitro-derived human preimplantation embryos, in order to characterise potentially adverse effects of ART and infertility on this locus in early human development. Embryonic genomic DNA from morula or blastocyst stage embryos was screened for a transcribed AflIII polymorphism in MEST and imprinting analysis was then performed in cDNA libraries derived from these embryos. In 10 heterozygous embryos, MEST expression was monoallelic in seven embryos, predominantly monoallelic in two embryos, and biallelic in one embryo. Screening of cDNA derived from 61 additional human preimplantation embryos, for which DNA for genotyping was unavailable, identified eight embryos with expression originating from both alleles (biallelic or predominantly monoallelic). In some embryos, therefore, the onset of imprinted MEST expression occurs during late preimplantation development. Variability in MEST imprinting was observed in both in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection-derived embryos. Biallelic or predominantly monoallelic MEST expression was not associated with any one cause of infertility. Characterisation of the main MEST isoforms revealed that isoform 2 was detected in early development and was itself variably imprinted between embryos. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the largest expression study to date of genomic imprinting in human preimplantation embryos and reveals that for some imprinted genes, contrasting imprinting states exist between embryos.