Project description:Purpose: In order to understand the functional significance of sperm transcriptome in stallion fertility, the aim of this study was to generate a detailed body of knowledge about the sperm RNA profile that defines a normal fertile stallion. Methods: The 50 bp single-end ABI SOLiD raw reads were directly aligned with the horse reference sequence EcuCab2 using ABI aligner software (NovoalignCS version 1.00.09, novocraft.com) which uses multiple indexes in the reference genome, identifies candidate alignment locations for each primary read, and allows completion of the alignment. Results: Next generation sequencing (NGS) of total RNA from the sperm of two reproductively normal stallions generated about 70 million raw reads and more than 3 Gb of sequence per sample; over half of these aligned with the EcuCab2 reference genome. Altogether, 19,257 sequence tags with average coverage ?1 (normalized number of transcripts) were mapped in the horse genome. Conclusion: The sequence of stallion sperm transcriptome is an important foundation for the discovery of transcripts of known and novel genes, and non-coding RNAs, thus improving the annotation of the horse genome sequence draft and providing markers for evaluating stallion fertility. Reproductively fertile Stallion sperm transcriptome as revealed by RNA sequencing
Project description:Purpose: In order to understand the functional significance of sperm transcriptome in stallion fertility, the aim of this study was to generate a detailed body of knowledge about the sperm RNA profile that defines a normal fertile stallion. Methods: The 50 bp single-end ABI SOLiD raw reads were directly aligned with the horse reference sequence EcuCab2 using ABI aligner software (NovoalignCS version 1.00.09, novocraft.com) which uses multiple indexes in the reference genome, identifies candidate alignment locations for each primary read, and allows completion of the alignment. Results: Next generation sequencing (NGS) of total RNA from the sperm of two reproductively normal stallions generated about 70 million raw reads and more than 3 Gb of sequence per sample; over half of these aligned with the EcuCab2 reference genome. Altogether, 19,257 sequence tags with average coverage ≥1 (normalized number of transcripts) were mapped in the horse genome. Conclusion: The sequence of stallion sperm transcriptome is an important foundation for the discovery of transcripts of known and novel genes, and non-coding RNAs, thus improving the annotation of the horse genome sequence draft and providing markers for evaluating stallion fertility. Reproductively fertile Stallion sperm transcriptome as revealed by RNA sequencing
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which comprise a large family of endogenous small non-coding RNA molecules, play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in various biological processes. The Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) is a Chinese native fish species and is used extensively as an experimental fish in China; however, relevant biological data, especially miRNA transcriptome data, have not been well documented. To discover conserved and potential novel miRNAs in Chinese rare minnows, a pool of equal amounts of RNA obtained from 6 different adult rare minnow tissues (brain, eye, gill, liver, muscle and heart) was sequenced using illumina deep sequencing technology.In the present study, 26,930,553 raw reads, representing 2,118,439 unique high-quality reads, were obtained from the pooled small RNA library. Using bioinformatics analysis, 352 conserved and 112 novel Chinese rare minnow miRNAs were first discovered and characterized in this study. Moreover, we found extensive sequence variations (isomiRs) in rare minnow miRNAs, including internal miRNA isomiRs and terminal isomiRs at both the 5' and 3' ends and nucleotide variants. Six conserved and 4 novel miRNAs were selected and validated in 6 different adult rare minnow tissues using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results showed that miR-30a, miR-30b, and Novel-37 are ubiquitously expressed in a variety of tissues. miR-16a, miR-9, miR-125b, miR-34a, and Novel-69 were predominantly expressed in the brain. Novel-115 and Novel-7 were highly expressed in gills, but were relatively weakly expressed in other tissues. These results provided the expression patterns of miRNA genes in Chinese rare minnow. Finally, based on bioinformatics predictions, we mainly found that Novel-94 and Novel-1b-5p were simultaneously targeted to the 3'UTR of Dmrt1, which controls sex determination and/or sexual differentiation in a variety of metazoans at different sites. Novel-29b targeted the 3'UTR of Foxl2, which is involved in the maintenance of ovarian function and the transcriptional regulation of gonadal differentiation-related genes. Novel-62 and Novel-53 targeted the 3'UTR of ERbeta1 and ERbeta2 (which regulate the transcription of target genes), respectively.Rare minnow is a widely used model for assessing the risk of environmental pollution in China. Identifying and characterizing rare minnow miRNA genes is necessary to discover the biological function of miRNAs and to screen for new molecule biomarkers to assess the risk of environmental pollution in the future.
Project description:Mature mammalian sperm contain a complex population of RNAs some of which might regulate spermatogenesis while others probably play a role in fertilization and early development. Due to this limited knowledge, the biological functions of sperm RNAs remain enigmatic. Here we report the first characterization of the global transcriptome of the sperm of fertile stallions. The findings improved understanding of the biological significance of sperm RNAs which in turn will allow the discovery of sperm-based biomarkers for stallion fertility. The stallion sperm transcriptome was interrogated by analyzing sperm and testes RNA on a 21,000-element equine whole-genome oligoarray and by RNA-seq. Microarray analysis revealed 6,761 transcripts in the sperm, of which 165 were sperm-enriched, and 155 were differentially expressed between the sperm and testes. Next, 70 million raw reads were generated by RNA-seq of which 50% could be aligned with the horse reference genome. A total of 19,257 sequence tags were mapped to all horse chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. The highest density of mapped transcripts was in gene-rich ECA11, 12 and 13, and the lowest in gene-poor ECA9 and X; 7 gene transcripts originated from ECAY. Structural annotation aligned sperm transcripts with 4,504 known horse and/or human genes, rRNAs and 82 miRNAs, whereas 13,354 sequence tags remained anonymous. The data were aligned with selected equine gene models to identify additional exons and splice variants. Gene Ontology annotations showed that sperm transcripts were associated with molecular processes (chemoattractant-activated signal transduction, ion transport) and cellular components (membranes and vesicles) related to known sperm functions at fertilization, while some messenger and micro RNAs might be critical for early development. The findings suggest that the rich repertoire of coding and non-coding RNAs in stallion sperm is not a random remnant from spermatogenesis in testes but a selectively retained and functionally coherent collection of RNAs.
Project description:Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, known as 'queen of spices, is a perennial herbaceous monocot of the family Zingiberaceae, native to southern India. Cardamom is an economically valuable spice crop and used widely in culinary and medicinal purposes. In the present study, using Ion Proton RNA sequencing technology, we performed transcriptome sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly of a wild and five cultivar genotypes of cardamom. RNA-seq generated a total of 22,811,983 (92 base) and 24,889,197 (75 base) raw reads accounting for approximately 8.21GB and 7.65GB of sequence data for wild and cultivar genotypes of cardamom respectively. The raw data were submitted to SRA database of NCBI under the accession numbers SRX1141272 (wild) and SRX1141276 (cultivars). The raw reads were quality filtered and assembled using MIRA assembler resulted with 112,208 and 264,161contigs having N50 value 616 and 664 for wild and cultivar cardamom respectively. The assembled unigenes were functionally annotated using several databases including PlantCyc for pathway annotation. This work represents the first report on cardamom transcriptome sequencing. In order to generate a comprehensive reference transcriptome, we further assembled the raw reads of wild and cultivar genotypes which might enrich the plant transcriptome database and trigger advanced research in cardamom genomics.
Project description:Next generation sequencing has an advantageon transformational development of species with limited available sequence data as it helps to decode the genome and transcriptome. We carried out the de novo sequencing using illuminaHiSeq™ 2000 to generate the first leaf transcriptome of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), an important spice variety native to South India and also grown in other tropical regions. Despite the economic and biochemical importance of pepper, a scientifically rigorous study at the molecular level is far from complete due to lack of sufficient sequence information and cytological complexity of its genome. The 55 million raw reads obtained, when assembled using Trinity program generated 2,23,386 contigs and 1,28,157 unigenes. Reports suggest that the repeat-rich genomic regions give rise to small non-coding functional RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most abundant type of non-coding regulatory RNAs. In spite of the widespread research on miRNAs, little is known about the hair-pin precursors of miRNAs bearing Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs). We used the array of transcripts generated, for the in silico prediction and detection of '43 pre-miRNA candidates bearing different types of SSR motifs'. The analysis identified 3913 different types of SSR motifs with an average of one SSR per 3.04 MB of thetranscriptome. About 0.033% of the transcriptome constituted 'pre-miRNA candidates bearing SSRs'. The abundance, type and distribution of SSR motifs studied across the hair-pin miRNA precursors, showed a significant bias in the position of SSRs towards the downstream of predicted 'pre-miRNA candidates'. The catalogue of transcripts identified, together with the demonstration of reliable existence of SSRs in the miRNA precursors, permits future opportunities for understanding the genetic mechanism of black pepper and likely functions of 'tandem repeats' in miRNAs.
Project description:Efforts to resolve the transcribed sequences in the equine genome have focused on protein-coding RNA. The transcription of the intergenic regions, although detected via total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), has yet to be characterized in the horse. The most recent equine transcriptome based on RNA-seq from several tissues was a prime opportunity to obtain a concurrent long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) database.This lncRNA database has a breadth of eight tissues and a depth of over 20 million reads for select tissues, providing the deepest and most expansive equine lncRNA database. Utilizing the intergenic reads and three categories of novel genes from a previously published equine transcriptome pipeline, we better describe these groups by annotating the lncRNA candidates. These lncRNA candidates were filtered using an approach adapted from human lncRNA annotation, which removes transcripts based on size, expression, protein-coding capability and distance to the start or stop of annotated protein-coding transcripts.Our equine lncRNA database has 20,800 transcripts that demonstrate characteristics unique to lncRNA including low expression, low exon diversity and low levels of sequence conservation. These candidate lncRNA will serve as a baseline lncRNA annotation and begin to describe the RNA-seq reads assigned to the intergenic space in the horse.
Project description:Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is known for its delectable taste and contains high amount of xanthones which have been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and other bioactive properties. However, stage-specific regulation of mangosteen fruit ripening has never been studied in detail. We have performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of three ripening stages (Stage 0, 2 and 6) of mangosteen. We have obtained a raw data from six libraries through Illumina HiSeq 4000. A total of ~ 40 Gb of raw data were generated. Clean reads of 650,887,650 (bp) were obtained from 656,913,570 (bp) raw reads. The raw transcriptome data were deposited to SRA database, with the BioProject accession number of PRJNA339916. These data will be beneficial for transcriptome profiling in order to study the regulation of mangosteen fruit ripening. The lack of a complete sequence database from this species impedes protein identification. These data sets provide a reference data for the exploration of novel genes or proteins to understand mangosteen fruit ripening behaviour.
Project description:Asini Corii Colla (ACC) (namely donkey hide gelatin, E'jiao in Chinese) was one of the most valuable tonic traditional Chinese medicines which is an infallible remedy to promote hematopoiesis. It should be produced by fresh or dried donkey hide according to Chinese Pharmacopeia (2015 edition) with a long-time decoction, while as donkey and horse (or mule) all belong to equids so their hides or their hide gelatins are share much in common, that cause the difficult in distinguishing raw materials donkey hide from horse/mule hide for manufacturer, and the challenge in the quality evaluation of ACC for regulatory authority to identify the adulterated with horse hide.To establish an effective quality evaluation methods for ACC focused on the qualitative-based identification of the raw material's authenticity, mainly to identify the species origin of the gelatins.DNA extracted from (1) Raw materials (hides of donkey, horse, mule, bovine and pig); (2) Five hide-glues (bovine, pig, donkey, horse and mule hide-glue); (3) 11 batches of ACC commercial products made by different manufactures from local drug stores. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with newly designed horse-specific primers I and primer pair II.Use the primer pair I, a 234 bp target product could be amplified sensitively from the DNA sample of horse/mule adulterated commercial ACC products, though the DNA in commercial products is severely degraded. A 219 bp product could be amplified specifically from the DNA sample of horse/mule hide, while the results were all negative for the DNA templates of donkey hide, its gelatin and ACC products without adulteration.The developed PCR method based on primer I and II provide an effective approach to identify the species origin of highly processed product ACC (primer pair I) as well as to distinguish the raw material donkey hide (primer pair II), which might enlighten a new strategy to the Quality Evaluation of ACC.Though the quality of commercial Asini Corii Colla (ACC) products varies greatly and produce with nondonkey hide was one the most common adulteration, the effective method to constrain such adulteration remains to be establishedThe gelatins made by donkey, horse, bovine, pig, mule shares much in common with each other, not only in contents of amino acids but also the profiles of protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, gel filtration chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresisThe adulteration in ACC by using horse/mule hide, which is most difficult to detect, could be identified by Polymerase chain reaction methods with newly designed horse/mule-specific primer. Abbreviations Used: ACC: Asini Corii Colla; TCMs: Traditional Chinese Medicines; SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; IEF: Isoelectric focusing; GFC: Gel filtration chromatography; 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction.
Project description:As a nutrient sensor, the placenta plays a key role in regulating fetus growth and development. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to regulate growth-related traits. However, the biological function of lncRNAs in horse placentas remains unclear. To compare the expression patterns of lncRNAs in the placentas of the Chinese Ningqiang (NQ) and Yili (YL) breeds, we performed a transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. NQ is a pony breed with an average adult height at the withers of less than 106 cm, whereas that of YL is around 148 cm. Based on 813 million high-quality reads and stringent quality control procedures, 3011 transcripts coding for 1464 placental lncRNAs were identified and mapped to the horse reference genome. We found 107 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) between NQ and YL, including 68 up-regulated and 39 down-regulated DELs in YL. Six (TBX3, CACNA1F, EDN3, KAT5, ZNF281, TMED2, and TGFB1) out of the 233 genes targeted by DELs were identified as being involved in limb development, skeletal myoblast differentiation, and embryo development. Two DELs were predicted to target the TBX3 gene, which was found to be under strong selection and associated with small body size in the Chinese Debao pony breed. This finding suggests the potential functional significance of placental lncRNAs in regulating horse body size.