Project description:Investigation of tumor genes which are involved in the upregulation of MHC I expression through a genome-wide in vitro CRISPR/Cas9 screen Overall design: B16-F10 Cas9 expressing cells transduced with a genome-wide CRISPR library were successively treated overnight with IFN-γ and FACS sorted for cells that failed to upregulate MHC I expression. An untreated population of transduced cells frozen after puromycin selection were used for comparison
Project description:Investigation of the tumor transcriptional response upon NK cell attack using 3’ RNA sequencing Overall design: B16-F10 cells were left untreated or co-cultured with activated murine NK cells for 7 hours. Experiment was performed in technical triplicate
Project description:Investigation of the transcriptional response in Jak1 depleted tumor cells upon NK-derived cytokine presence using 3’ RNA sequencing Overall design: Control or Jak1 sgRNA B16-F10 tumor cells were treated for 7 hours with supernatant derived from a separate WT B16-F10/NK co-culture. Experiment was performed in technical triplicate. Cells treated with IFN-γ were used as a positive control and cells treated with TNF were used as a negative control
Project description:Investigation of tumor genes which limit sensitivity to killing by NK cells through a genome-wide in vitro CRISPR/Cas9 screen Overall design: B16-F10 Cas9 expressing cells transduced with a genome-wide CRISPR library were successively co-cultured overnight with activated NK cells at an equal ratio. Experiment was performed in technical duplicate. An untreated control cultured alongside was used for comparison
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in several human cancers. Here, we investigate the effect of FASN inhibitors on the metastatic spread and angiogenesis in experimental melanomas and cultured melanoma cells. METHODS: The lung colonisation assay and cutaneous melanomas were performed by the inoculation of mouse melanoma B16-F10 cells in C57BL6 mice. Blood vessel endothelial cells (RAEC and HUVEC) were applied to determine cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the formation of capillary-like structures. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA in B16-F10, human melanoma (SK-MEL-25), and human oral squamous carcinoma (SCC-9) cells. Conditioned media from these cancer cell lines were used to study the effects of FASN inhibitors on endothelial cells. RESULTS: B16-F10 melanoma-induced metastases and angiogenesis were significantly reduced in orlistat-treated mice. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors reduced the viability, proliferation, and the formation of capillary-like structures by RAEC cells, as well as the tumour cell-mediated formation of HUVEC capillary-like structures. Cerulenin and orlistat stimulated the production of total VEGFA in B16-F10, SK-MEL-25, and SCC-9 cells. Both drugs also enhanced VEGFA(121), (165), (189,) and (165b) in SK-MEL-25 and SCC-9 cells. CONCLUSION: FASN inhibitors reduce metastasis and tumour-induced angiogenesis in experimental melanomas, and differentially modulate VEGFA expression in B16-F10 cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that adenosine generated by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) in the tumor microenvironment plays a major role in promoting tumor growth by suppressing the immune response and stimulating angiogenesis via A2A and A2B receptors. However, adenosine has also been reported to inhibit tumor growth acting via A1 and A3 receptors. Therefore the aim of this study was to clarify the role of host CD73, which catalyzes the extracellular hydrolysis of AMP to adenosine, on tumor growth and metastasis of B16-F10 melanoma cells. METHODS: CD73 and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity of B16-F10 melanoma cells were measured by HPLC. Tumor cells were injected either subcutaneously or intradermally in WT and CD73-/- mice and tumor growth was monitored by MRI at 9.4 T. Immune cell subpopulations within tumors were assessed by FACS after enzymatic digestion. An endothelium specific CD73-/- was created using Tie2-Cre+ mice and CD73flox/flox (loxP) mice. Chimeric mice lacking CD73-/- on hematopoietic cells was generated by bone marrow transplantation. Lung metastatic spread was measured after intravenous B16-F10 application. RESULTS: B16-F10 cells showed very little CD73 and negligible AP activity. Neither complete loss of host CD73 nor specific knockout of CD73 on endothelial cells or hematopoietic cells affected tumor growth after subcutaneous or intradermal tumor cell application. Only peritumoral edema formation was significantly attenuated in global CD73-/- mice in the intradermal model. Immune cell composition revealed no differences in the different transgenic mice models. Also lung metastasis after intravenous B16-F10 injection was not altered in CD73-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: CD73 expression on host cells, particularly on endothelial and hematopoietic cells, does not modulate tumor growth and metastatic spread of B16-F10 melanoma cells most likely because of insufficient adenosine formation by the tumor itself.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: Anthocyanins have been proven to affect multiple cancer-associated processes in different cancer cell lines. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of blueberry anthocyanins on metastatic melanoma. Thus, this study focuses on evaluating the chemopreventive potential of blueberry anthocyanins and their aglycones (anthocyanidins) in B16-F10 melanoma cells. <b>Methods</b>: Blueberry anthocyanin and anthocyanidin extracts were prepared mainly by combined chromatography techniques. Their antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on B16-F10 cells were evaluated by MTT assay, calcein acetoxymethyl ester/propidium iodide (calcein-AM/PI) staining, and flow cytometry of the cell cycle and apoptosis. <b>Results</b>: The MTT and calcein-AM/PI staining results showed that both anthocyanin (purity of 62.5%) and anthocyanidin (75.1%) extracts could significantly inhibit the viability and proliferation of B16-F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner, while anthocyanidin extracts exhibited significantly higher (<i>p</i> < 0.05) cytotoxicity than anthocyanin extracts. Furthermore, anthocyanin and anthocyanidin extracts blocked cell cycle procession at the G0/G1 phase below 400 and 200 ?g/mL, and induced early apoptosis below 400 and 300 ?g/mL, respectively. <b>Conclusions</b>: These data suggest that both anthocyanin and anthocyanidin extracts inhibit the proliferation and trigger the apoptosis of B16-F10 cells, and anthocyanidin extracts may be a more promising candidate in preventing metastatic melanoma than anthocyanin extracts.
Project description:In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC)-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) containing conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel (CLA-PTX). The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes' cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 ?g/g) and 4 hours (1.17±0.28 ?g/g) was 2.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that of CLA-PTX solution at 1 hour (0.79±0.06 ?g/g) and 4 hours (0.58±0.04 ?g/g). The value of the area under the curve for the first 24 hours in the tumors of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice was significantly higher than that in the SSL-CLA-PTX and CLA-PTX solution-treated groups (P<0.01). The in vivo antitumor results indicated that iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX significantly inhibited the growth of B16-F10 tumors compared with the SSL-CLA-PTX or CLA-PTX solution-treatment groups (P<0.01). The results of tumor-cell apoptosis showed that tumors from the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group exhibited more advanced cell apoptosis compared with the control, CLA-PTX solution-, and SSL-CLA-PTX-treated groups. In conclusion, the antitumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was confirmed on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:The common experimental use of B16-F10 melanoma cells focuses on exploring their metastatic potential following intravenous injection into mice. In this study, B16-F10 cells are used to develop a primary tumor model by implanting them directly into the ears of C57BL/6J mice. The model represents a reproducible and easily traceable tool for local tumor growth and for making additional in vivo observations, due to the localization of the tumors. This model is relatively simple and involves (i) surgical opening of the ear skin, (ii) removal of a square-piece of cartilage followed by (iii) the implantation of tumor cells with fibrin gel. The remodeling of the fibrin gel within the cartilage chamber, accompanying tumor proliferation, results in the formation of blood vessels, lymphatics and tissue matrix that can be readily distinguished from the pre-existing skin structures. Moreover, this method avoids the injection-enforced artificial spread of cells into the pre-existing lymphatic vessels. The tumors have a highly reproducible exponential growth pattern with a tumor doubling time of around 1.8 days, reaching an average volume of 85mm3 16 days after implantation. The melanomas are densely cellular with proliferative indices of between 60 and 80%. The induced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis resulted in the development of well-vascularized tumors. Different populations of immunologically active cells were also present in the tumor; the population of macrophages decreases with time while the population of T cells remained quasi constant. The B16-F10 tumors in the ear frequently metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes, reaching an incidence of 75% by day 16. This newly introduced B16-F10 melanoma model in the ear is a powerful tool that provides a new opportunity to study the local tumor growth and metastasis, the associated angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and tumor immune responses. It could potentially be used to test different treatment strategies.