Project description:AIM:Although patterns are emerging for macroorganisms, we have limited understanding of the factors determining soil microbial community composition and productivity at large spatial extents. The overall objective of this study was to discern the drivers of microbial community composition at the extent of biogeographical provinces and regions. We hypothesized that factors associated with land use and climate would drive soil microbial community composition and biomass. LOCATION:Great Basin Province, Desert Province and California Floristic Province, California, USA. METHODS:Using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, we compared microbial communities across eight land-use types sampled throughout the State of California, USA (n = 1117). RESULTS:The main factor driving composition and microbial biomass was land-use type, especially as related to water availability and disturbance. Dry soils were more enriched in Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, and wetter soils were more enriched in Gram-positive, anaerobic and sulphate-reducing bacteria. Microbial biomass was lowest in ecosystems with the wettest and driest soils. Disturbed soils had less fungal and more Gram-positive bacterial biomass than wildland soils. However, some factors known to influence microbial communities, such as soil pH and specific plant taxa, were not important here. MAIN CONCLUSIONS:Distinct microbial communities were associated with land-use types and disturbance at the regional extent. Overall, soil water availability was an important determinant of soil microbial community composition. However, because of the inclusion of managed and irrigated agricultural ecosystems, the effect of precipitation was not significant. Effects of environmental and management factors, such as flooding, tillage and irrigation, suggest that agricultural management can have larger effects on soil microbial communities than elevation and precipitation gradients.
Project description:In this study, the selection of bacteria on the basis of their migration via fungal hyphae in soil was investigated in microcosm experiments containing Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten (DSM2979). One week following inoculation with a bacterial community obtained from soil, selection of a few specific bacterial types was noticed at 30 mm in the growth direction of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten in sterile soil. Cultivation-based analyses showed that the migration-proficient types encompassed 10 bacterial groups, as evidenced by (GTG)(5) genomic fingerprinting as well as 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These were (>97% similarity) Burkholderia terrae BS001, Burkholderia sordidicola BS026, Burkholderia sediminicola BS010, and Burkholderia phenazinium BS028; Dyella japonica BS013, BS018, and BS021; "Sphingoterrabacterium pocheensis" BS024; Sphingobacterium daejeonense BS025; and Ralstonia basilensis BS017. Migration as single species was subsequently found for B. terrae BS001, D. japonica BS018 and BS021, and R. basilensis BS017. Typically, migration occurred only when these organisms were introduced at the fungal growth front and only in the direction of hyphal growth. Migration proficiency showed a one-sided correlation with the presence of the hrcR gene, used as a marker for the type III secretion system (TTSS), as all single-strain migrators were equipped with this system and most non-single-strain migrators were not. The presence of the TTSS stood in contrast to the low prevalence of TTSSs within the bacterial community used as an inoculum (<3%). Microscopic examination of B. terrae BS001 in contact with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten hyphae revealed the development of a biofilm surrounding the hyphae. Migration-proficient bacteria interacting with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten may show complex behavior (biofilm formation) at the fungal tip, leading to their translocation and growth in novel microhabitats in soil.
Project description:Soil bacteria can benefit from co-occurring soil fungi in respect of the acquisition of carbonaceous nutrients released by fungal hyphae and the access to novel territories in soil. Here, we investigated the capacity of the mycosphere-isolated bacterium Burkholderia terrae BS001 to comigrate through soil along with hyphae of the soil fungi Trichoderma asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, F. oxysporum pv lini, Coniochaeta ligniaria, Phanerochaete velutina, and Phallus impudicus. We used Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten as the reference migration-inciting fungus. Bacterial migration through presterilized soil on the extending fungal hyphae was detected with six of the seven test fungi, with only Phallus impudicus not showing any bacterial transport. Much like with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten, intermediate (10(6)-10(8) CFU g(-1) dry soil) to high (>10(8) CFU g(-1) dry soil) strain BS001 cell population sizes were found at the hyphal migration fronts of four fungi, i.e., T. asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, F. oxysporum and F. oxysporum pv lini, whereas for two fungi, Coniochaeta ligniaria and Phanerochaete velutina, the migration responses were retarded and population sizes were lower (10(3)-10(6) CFU g(-1) dry soil). Consistent with previous data obtained with the reference fungus, migration with the migration-inciting fungi occurred only in the direction of the hyphal growth front. Remarkably, Burkholderia terrae BS001 provided protection from several antifungal agents to the canonical host Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. Specifically, this host was protected from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 metabolites, as well as from the anti-fungal agent cycloheximide. Similar protection by strain BS001was observed for T. asperellum, and, to a lower extent, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. The protective effect may be related to the consistent occurrence of biofilm-like cell layers or agglomerates at the surfaces of the protected fungi. The current study represents the first report of protection of soil fungi against antagonistic agents present in the soil provided by fungal-associated Burkholderia terrae cells.
Project description:The soil bacterium Burkholderia terrae strain BS001 can interact with varying soil fungi, using mechanisms that range from the utilization of carbon/energy sources such as glycerol to the ability to reach novel territories in soil via co-migration with growing fungal mycelia. Here, we investigate the intrinsic properties of the B. terrae BS001 interaction with the basidiomycetous soil fungus Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. In some experiments, the ascomycetous Trichoderma asperellum 302 was also used. The hyphae of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten were largely hydrophilic on water-containing media versus hydrophobic when aerial, as evidenced by contact angle analyses (CA). Co-migration of B. terrae strain BS001 cells with the hyphae of the two fungi occurred preferentially along the - presumably hydrophilic - soil-dwelling hyphae, whereas aerial hyphae did not allow efficient migration, due to reduced thickness of their surrounding mucous films. Moreover, the cell numbers over the length of the hyphae in soil showed an uneven distribution, i.e., the CFU numbers increased from minima at the inoculation point to maximal numbers in the middle of the extended hyphae, then decreasing toward the terminal side. Microscopic analyses of the strain BS001 associations with the Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten hyphae in the microcosms confirmed the presence of B. terrae BS001 cells on the mucous matter that was present at the hyphal surfaces of the fungi used. Cell agglomerates were found to accumulate at defined sites on the hyphal surfaces, which were coined 'fungal-interactive' hot spots. Evidence was further obtained for the contention that receptors for a physical bacterium-fungus interaction occur at the Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten hyphal surface, in which the specific glycosphingolipid ceramide monohexoside (CMH) plays an important role. Thus, bacterial adherence may be mediated by heterogeneously distributed fungal-specific receptors, implying the CMH moieties. This study sheds light on the physical aspects of the B. terrae BS001 - Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten interaction, highlighting heterogeneity along the hyphae with respect to hydrophobicity and the presence of potential anchoring sites.
Project description:Understanding plant-microbe relationships can be important for developing management strategies for invasive plants, particularly when these relationships interact with underlying variables, such as habitat type and seedbank density, to mediate control efforts. In a field study located in California, USA, we investigated how soil microbial communities differ across the invasion front of Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead), an annual grass that has rapidly invaded most of the western USA. Plots were installed in habitats where medusahead invasion is typically successful (open grassland) and typically not successful (oak woodland). Medusahead was seeded into plots at a range of densities (from 0-50,000 seeds/m2) to simulate different levels of invasion. We found that bacterial and fungal soil community composition were significantly different between oak woodland and open grassland habitats. Specifically, ectomycorrhizal fungi were more abundant in oak woodlands while arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant pathogens were more abundant in open grasslands. We did not find a direct effect of medusahead density on soil microbial communities across the simulated invasion front two seasons after medusahead were seeded into plots. Our results suggest that future medusahead management initiatives might consider plant-microbe interactions.
Project description:Background:Cultivars of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé) are widely used for pasture in the Southeastern USA. Soil microbial communities are unexplored in bahiagrass and they may be cultivar-dependent, as previously proven for other grass species. Understanding the influence of cultivar selection on soil microbial communities is crucial as microbiome taxa have repeatedly been shown to be directly linked to plant performance. Objectives:This study aimed to determine whether different bahiagrass cultivars interactively influence soil bacterial and fungal communities. Methods:Six bahiagrass cultivars ('Argentine', 'Pensacola', 'Sand Mountain', 'Tifton 9', 'TifQuik', and 'UF-Riata') were grown in a randomized complete block design with four replicate plots of 4.6 × 1.8 m per cultivar in a Rhodic Kandiudults soil in Northwest Florida, USA. Three soil subsamples per replicate plot were randomly collected. Soil DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA and fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 genes were amplified and sequenced with one Illumina Miseq Nano. Results:The soil bacterial and fungal community across bahiagrass cultivars showed similarities with communities recovered from other grassland ecosystems. Few differences in community composition and diversity of soil bacteria among cultivars were detected; none were detected for soil fungi. The relative abundance of sequences assigned to nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira was greater under 'Sand Mountain' than 'UF-Riata'. Indicator species analysis revealed that several bacterial and fungal indicators associated with either a single cultivar or a combination of cultivars are likely to be plant pathogens or antagonists. Conclusions:Our results suggest a low impact of plant cultivar choice on the soil bacterial community composition, whereas the soil fungal community was unaffected. Shifts in the relative abundance of Nitrospira members in response to cultivar choice may have implications for soil N dynamics. The cultivars associated with presumptive plant pathogens or antagonists indicates that the ability of bahiagrass to control plant pathogens may be cultivar-dependent, however, physiological studies on plant-microbe interactions are required to confirm this presumption. We therefore suggest that future studies should explore the potential of different bahiagrass cultivars on plant pathogen control, particularly in sod-based crop rotation.
Project description:Soil ecologists have debated the relative importance of dispersal limitation and ecological factors in determining the structure of soil microbial communities. Recent evidence suggests that 'everything is not everywhere', and that microbial communities are influenced by both dispersal limitation and ecological factors. However, we still do not understand the relative explanatory power of spatial and ecological factors, including plant species identity and even plant relatedness, for different fractions of the soil microbial community (i.e. bacterial and fungal communities). To ask whether factors such as plant species, soil chemistry, spatial location and plant relatedness influence rhizosphere community composition, we examined field-collected rhizosphere soil of seven congener pairs that occur at Bodega Bay Marine Reserve, CA, USA. We characterized differences in bacterial and fungal communities using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Plant species identity was the single best statistical predictor of both bacterial and fungal community composition in the root zone. Soil microbial community structure was also correlated with soil chemistry. The third best predictor of bacterial and fungal communities was spatial location, confirming that everything is not everywhere. Variation in microbial community composition was also related to combinations of spatial location, soil chemistry and plant relatedness, suggesting that these factors do not act independently. Plant relatedness explained less of the variation than plant species, soil chemistry, or spatial location. Despite some congeners occupying different habitats and being spatially distant, rhizosphere fungal communities of plant congeners were more similar than expected by chance. Bacterial communities from the same samples were only weakly similar between plant congeners. Thus, plant relatedness might influence soil fungal, more than soil bacterial, community composition.
Project description:The movement of bacterial cells along with fungal hyphae in soil (the mycosphere) has been reported in several previous studies. However, how local soil conditions affect bacterial migration direction in the mycosphere has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the influence of two soil parameters, pH and soil moisture content, on the migration, and survival, of Paraburkholderia terrae BS001 in the mycosphere of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten in microcosms containing a loamy sand soil. The data showed that bacterial movement along the hyphal networks took place in both the "forward" and the "backward" directions. Low soil pH strongly restricted bacterial survival, as well as dispersal in both directions, in the mycosphere. The backward movement was weakly correlated with the amount of fungal tissue formed in the old mycelial network. The initial soil moisture content, set at 12 versus 17% (corresponding to 42 and 60% of the soil water holding capacity), also significantly affected the bacterial dispersal along the fungal hyphae. Overall, the presence of fungal hyphae was found to increase the soil pH (under conditions of acidity), which possibly exerted protective effects on the bacterial cells. Finally, we provide a refined model that describes the bacterial migration patterns with fungal hyphae based on the new findings in this study.