Project description:Sweet cherry fruits from different cultivars have different pre- and post-harvest qualities. Here we present the transcriptome profile datasets of leaves and mature fruits of three sweet cherry cultivars ('Bing', 'Lapin' and 'Rainier'). Using 454 GS-FLX technology (454 Life Sciences, Roche), transcriptomes of leaves and mature fruits were obtained from these cultivars. These transcriptome data sets are reported here.
Project description:Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) is a member of the genus Hostuviroid of the family Pospiviroidae and has been found in a wide range of herbaceous and woody hosts. It causes serious dapple fruit symptoms on infected sweet cherry, notably inducing cherry tree decay. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of HSVd infection in sweet cherry fruit, transcriptome analysis of HSVd-infected and healthy sweet cherry fruits was carried out. A total of 1,572 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, involving 961 upregulated DEGs and 611 downregulated DEGs. Functional analysis indicated that the DEGs were mainly involved in plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, secondary metabolism, and the MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, C2H2 zinc finger, MYB, bHLH, AP2/ERF, C2C2-dof, NAC and WRKY transcription factors can respond to HSVd infection. In order to confirm the high-throughput sequencing results, 16 DEGs were verified by RT-qPCR analysis. The results provided insight into the pathways and genes of sweet cherry fruit in response to HSVd infection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of fruit color. Normalized cDNA libraries from red and yellow fruits were sequenced using the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. Over 66 million high-quality reads were assembled into 43,128 unigenes using a combined assembly strategy. Then a total of 22,452 unigenes were compared to public databases using homology searches, and 20,095 of these unigenes were annotated in the Nr protein database. Furthermore, transcriptome differences between the four stages of fruit ripening were analyzed using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 72 unigenes were involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The expression patterns of unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavanone 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and UDP glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) during fruit ripening differed between red and yellow fruit. In addition, we identified some transcription factor families (such as MYB, bHLH and WD40) that may control anthocyanin biosynthesis. We confirmed the altered expression levels of eighteen unigenes that encode anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>The obtained sweet cherry transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information that lends insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis. These results will provide a platform for further functional genomic research on this fruit crop.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. RESULTS: Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry.
Project description:Prunus is an economically important genus with a wide range of physiological and biological variability. Using the peach genome as a reference, sequencing reads from four almond accessions and one sweet cherry cultivar were used for comparative analysis of these three Prunus species. Reference mapping enabled the identification of many biological relevant polymorphisms within the individuals. Examining the depth of the polymorphisms and the overall scaffold coverage, we identified many potentially interesting regions including hundreds of small scaffolds with no coverage from any individual. Non-sense mutations account for about 70 000 of the 13 million identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Blast2GO analyses on these non-sense SNPs revealed several interesting results. First, non-sense SNPs were not evenly distributed across all gene ontology terms. Specifically, in comparison with peach, sweet cherry is found to have non-sense SNPs in two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) genes and two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) genes. These polymorphisms may be at the root of the nonclimacteric ripening of sweet cherry. A set of candidate genes associated with bitterness in almond were identified by comparing sweet and bitter almond sequences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in plants of non-sense SNP abundance in a genus being linked to specific GO terms.
Project description:Factors regulating fine-root growth are poorly understood, particularly in fruit tree species. In this context, the effects of N addition on the temporal and spatial distribution of fine-root growth and on the fine-root turnover were assessed in irrigated sweet cherry trees. The influence of other exogenous and endogenous factors was also examined. The rhizotron technique was used to measure the length-based fine-root growth in trees fertilized at two N rates (0 and 60?kg?ha(-1)), and the above-ground growth, leaf net assimilation, and air and soil variables were simultaneously monitored. N fertilization exerted a basal effect throughout the season, changing the magnitude, temporal patterns and spatial distribution of fine-root production and mortality. Specifically, N addition enhanced the total fine-root production by increasing rates and extending the production period. On average, N-fertilized trees had a length-based production that was 110-180% higher than in control trees, depending on growing season. Mortality was proportional to production, but turnover rates were inconsistently affected. Root production and mortality was homogeneously distributed in the soil profile of N-fertilized trees while control trees had 70-80% of the total fine-root production and mortality concentrated below 50?cm depth. Root mortality rates were associated with soil temperature and water content. In contrast, root production rates were primarily under endogenous control, specifically through source-sink relationships, which in turn were affected by N supply through changes in leaf photosynthetic level. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous factors interacted to control the fine-root dynamics of irrigated sweet cherry trees.
Project description:High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a community initiative to enable marker-assisted breeding for rosaceous crops. Next-generation sequencing in diverse breeding germplasm provided 25 billion basepairs (Gb) of cherry DNA sequence from which were identified genome-wide SNPs for sweet cherry and for the two sour cherry subgenomes derived from sweet cherry (avium subgenome) and P. fruticosa (fruticosa subgenome). Anchoring to the peach genome sequence, recently released by the International Peach Genome Initiative, predicted relative physical locations of the 1.9 million putative SNPs detected, preliminarily filtered to 368,943 SNPs. Further filtering was guided by results of a 144-SNP subset examined with the Illumina GoldenGate® assay on 160 accessions. A 6K Infinium® II array was designed with SNPs evenly spaced genetically across the sweet and sour cherry genomes. SNPs were developed for each sour cherry subgenome by using minor allele frequency in the sour cherry detection panel to enrich for subgenome-specific SNPs followed by targeting to either subgenome according to alleles observed in sweet cherry. The array was evaluated using panels of sweet (n?=?269) and sour (n?=?330) cherry breeding germplasm. Approximately one third of array SNPs were informative for each crop. A total of 1825 polymorphic SNPs were verified in sweet cherry, 13% of these originally developed for sour cherry. Allele dosage was resolved for 2058 polymorphic SNPs in sour cherry, one third of these being originally developed for sweet cherry. This publicly available genomics resource represents a significant advance in cherry genome-scanning capability that will accelerate marker-locus-trait association discovery, genome structure investigation, and genetic diversity assessment in this diploid-tetraploid crop group.
Project description:Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) is an economically significant fruit species in the genus Prunus. However, in contrast to other important fruit trees in this genus, only one draft genome assembly is available for sweet cherry, which was assembled using only Illumina short-read sequences. The incompleteness and low quality of the current sweet cherry draft genome limit its use in genetic and genomic studies. A high-quality chromosome-scale sweet cherry reference genome assembly is therefore needed. A total of 65.05?Gb of Oxford Nanopore long reads and 46.24?Gb of Illumina short reads were generated, representing ~190x and 136x coverage, respectively, of the sweet cherry genome. The final de novo assembly resulted in a phased haplotype assembly of 344.29?Mb with a contig N50 of 3.25?Mb. Hi-C scaffolding of the genome resulted in eight pseudochromosomes containing 99.59% of the bases in the assembled genome. Genome annotation revealed that more than half of the genome (59.40%) was composed of repetitive sequences, and 40,338 protein-coding genes were predicted, 75.40% of which were functionally annotated. With the chromosome-scale assembly, we revealed that gene duplication events contributed to the expansion of gene families for salicylic acid/jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase and ankyrin repeat-containing proteins in the genome of sweet cherry. Four auxin-responsive genes (two GH3s and two SAURs) were induced in the late stage of fruit development, indicating that auxin is crucial for the sweet cherry ripening process. In addition, 772 resistance genes were identified and functionally predicted in the sweet cherry genome. The high-quality genome assembly of sweet cherry obtained in this study will provide valuable genomic resources for sweet cherry improvement and molecular breeding.
Project description:Cherry breeding and genetic studies can benefit from genome-wide genetic marker assays. Currently, a 6K SNP array enables genome scans in cherry; however, only a third of these SNPs are informative, with low coverage in many genomic regions. Adding previously detected SNPs to this array could provide a cost-efficient upgrade with increased genomic coverage across the 670?cM/352.9?Mb cherry whole genome sequence. For sweet cherry, new SNPs were chosen following a focal point strategy, grouping six to eight SNPs within 10-kb windows with an average of 0.6?cM (627?kb) between focal points. Additional SNPs were chosen to represent important regions. Sweet cherry, the fruticosa subgenome of sour cherry, and cherry organellar genomes were targeted with 6942, 2020, and 38 new SNPs, respectively. The +9K add-on provided 2128, 1091, and 70 new reliable, polymorphic SNPs for sweet cherry and the avium and the fruticosa subgenomes of sour cherry, respectively. For sweet cherry, 1241 reliable polymorphic SNPs formed 237 informative focal points, with another 2504 SNPs in-between. The +9K SNPs increased genetic resolution and genome coverage of the original cherry SNP array and will help increase understanding of the genetic control of key traits and relationships among individuals in cherry.
Project description:Fruit firmness is an important market driven trait in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) where the desirable increase in fruit firmness is associated with landrace and bred cultivars. The aim of this work was to investigate the genetic basis of fruit firmness using plant materials that include wild cherry (syn. mazzard), landrace and bred sweet cherry germplasm. A major QTL for fruit firmness, named qP-FF4.1, that had not previously been reported, was identified in three sweet cherry populations. Thirteen haplotypes (alleles) associated with either soft or firm fruit were identified for qP-FF4.1 in the sweet cherry germplasm, and the "soft" alleles were dominant over the "firm" alleles. The finding that sweet cherry individuals that are homozygous for the "soft" alleles for qP-FF4.1 are exclusively mazzards and that the vast majority of the bred cultivars are homozygous for "firm" alleles suggests that this locus is a signature of selection. Candidate genes related to plant cell wall modification and various plant hormone signaling pathways were identified, with an expansin gene being the most promising candidate. These results advance our understanding of the genetic basis of fruit firmness and will help to enable the use of DNA informed breeding for this trait in sweet cherry breeding programs.