Project description:The neurohypophysis (NH), located at the posterior lobe of the pituitary, is a major neuroendocrine tissue, which mediates osmotic balance, blood pressure, reproduction, and lactation by means of releasing the neurohormones oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin from the brain into the peripheral blood circulation. The major cellular components of the NH are hypothalamic axonal termini, fenestrated endothelia and pituicytes, the resident astroglia. However, despite the physiological importance of the NH, the exact molecular signature defining neurohypophyseal cell types and in particular the pituicytes, remains unclear. Using single cell RNA sequencing, we captured seven distinct cell types in the NH and intermediate lobe (IL) of adult male mouse. We revealed novel pituicyte markers showing higher specificity than previously reported markers. Multiplexing single molecule in situ hybridization revealed spatial organization of the major cell types implying intercellular communications. We present a comprehensive molecular and cellular characterization of neurohypophyseal cell-types serving as a valuable resource for further functional research. Overall design: 2 pools of 5 dissected neurohypophyses from 3-month-old male C57/BL6 mice were prepared for 10x Chromium single-cell RNA-Seq
Project description:The neurohypophysis (NH), located at the posterior lobe of the pituitary, is a major neuroendocrine tissue, which mediates osmotic balance, blood pressure, reproduction, and lactation by means of releasing the neurohormones oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) from the brain into the peripheral blood circulation. The major cellular components of the NH are hypothalamic axonal termini, fenestrated endothelia and pituicytes, the resident astroglia. However, despite the physiological importance of the NH, the exact molecular signature defining neurohypophyseal cell types and in particular the pituicytes, remains unclear. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq), we captured seven distinct cell types in the NH and intermediate lobe (IL) of adult male mouse. We revealed novel pituicyte markers showing higher specificity than previously reported. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that pituicyte is an astrocytic cell type whose transcriptome resembles that of tanycyte. Single molecule in situ hybridization revealed spatial organization of the major cell types implying intercellular communications. We present a comprehensive molecular and cellular characterization of neurohypophyseal cell types serving as a valuable resource for further functional research.
Project description:Elucidating the cellular architecture of the human cerebral cortex is central to understanding our cognitive abilities and susceptibility to disease. Here we used single-nucleus RNA-sequencing analysis to perform a comprehensive study of cell types in the middle temporal gyrus of human cortex. We identified a highly diverse set of excitatory and inhibitory neuron types that are mostly sparse, with excitatory types being less layer-restricted than expected. Comparison to similar mouse cortex single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets revealed a surprisingly well-conserved cellular architecture that enables matching of homologous types and predictions of properties of human cell types. Despite this general conservation, we also found extensive differences between homologous human and mouse cell types, including marked alterations in proportions, laminar distributions, gene expression and morphology. These species-specific features emphasize the importance of directly studying human brain.
Project description:MOTIVATION:Metabolic modeling depends on accurately representing the cellular locations of enzyme-catalyzed and transport reactions. We sought to develop a representation of cellular compartmentation that would accurately capture cellular location information. We further sought a representation that would support automated inference of the cellular compartments present in newly sequenced organisms to speed model development, and that would enable representing the cellular compartments present in multiple cell types within a multicellular organism. RESULTS:We define the cellular architecture of a unicellular organism, or of a cell type from a multicellular organism, as the collection of cellular components it contains plus the topological relationships among those components. We developed a tool for inferring cellular architectures across many domains of life and extended our Cell Component Ontology to enable representation of the inferred architectures. We provide software for visualizing cellular architectures to verify their correctness and software for editing cellular architectures to modify or correct them. We also developed a representation that records the cellular compartment assignments of reactions with minimal duplication of information. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION:The Cell Component Ontology is freely available. The Pathway Tools software is freely available for academic research and is available for a fee for commercial use. CONTACT:email@example.com SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Defects in nuclear architecture occur in a variety of diseases, however the fundamental mechanisms that control the internal structure of nuclei are poorly defined. Here we reveal that the cellular microenvironment has a profound influence on the global internal organization of nuclei in breast epithelia. A 3D microenvironment induces a prolonged but reversible form of cell cycle arrest that features many of the classical markers of cell senescence. This unique form of arrest is dependent on signaling from the external microenvironment through ?1-integrins. It is concomitant with alterations in nuclear architecture that characterize the withdrawal from cell proliferation. Unexpectedly, following prolonged cell cycle arrest in 3D, the senescence-like state and associated reprogramming of nuclear architecture are freely reversible on altering the dimensionality of the cellular microenvironment. Breast epithelia can therefore maintain a proliferative plasticity that correlates with nuclear remodelling. However, the changes in nuclear architecture are cell lineage-specific and do not occur in fibroblasts, and moreover they are overcome in breast cancer cells.
Project description:A key feature of multicellular systems is the ability of cells to function collectively in response to external stimuli. However, the mechanisms of intercellular cell signaling and their functional implications in diverse vascular structures are poorly understood. Using a combination of computational modeling and plasma lithography micropatterning, we investigate the roles of structural arrangement of endothelial cells in collective calcium signaling and cell contractility. Under histamine stimulation, endothelial cells in self-assembled and microengineered networks, but not individual cells and monolayers, exhibit calcium oscillations. Micropatterning, pharmacological inhibition, and computational modeling reveal that the calcium oscillation depends on the number of neighboring cells coupled via gap junctional intercellular communication, providing a mechanistic basis of the architecture-dependent calcium signaling. Furthermore, the calcium oscillation attenuates the histamine-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and cell contraction, resulting in differential cell responses in an architecture-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that endothelial cells can sense and respond to chemical stimuli according to the vascular architecture via collective calcium signaling.
Project description:The success of malignant tumors is conditioned by the intercellular communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment, with extracellular vesicles (EVs) acting as main mediators. While the value of 3D conditions to study tumor cells is well established, the impact of cellular architecture on EV content and function is not investigated yet. Here, a recently developed 3D cell culture microwell array is adapted for EV production and a comprehensive comparative analysis of biochemical features, RNA and proteomic profiles of EVs secreted by 2D vs 3D cultures of gastric cancer cells, is performed. 3D cultures are significantly more efficient in producing EVs than 2D cultures. Global upregulation of microRNAs and downregulation of proteins in 3D are observed, indicating their dynamic coregulation in response to cellular architecture, with the ADP-ribosylation factor 6 signaling pathway significantly downregulated in 3D EVs. The data strengthen the biological relevance of cellular architecture for production and cargo of EVs.
Project description:The dynamic architecture of chromatin, the macromolecular complex comprised primarily of DNA and histones, is vital for eukaryotic cell growth. Chemical and conformational changes to chromatin are important markers of functional and developmental processes in cells. However, chromatin architecture regulation has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, novel approaches to assessing chromatin changes at the single-cell level are required. Here we report the use of FTIR imaging and microfluidic cell-stretcher chips to assess changes to chromatin architecture and its effect on the mechanical properties of the nucleus in immune cells. FTIR imaging enables label-free chemical imaging with subcellular resolution. By optimizing the FTIR methodology and coupling it with cell segmentation analysis approach, we have identified key spectral changes corresponding to changes in DNA levels and chromatin conformation at the single cell level. By further manipulating live single cells using pressure-driven microfluidics, we found that chromatin decondensation - either during general transcriptional activation or during specific immune cell maturation - can ultimately lead to nuclear auxeticity which is a new biological phenomenon recently identified. Taken together our findings demonstrate the tight and, potentially bilateral, link between extra-cellular mechanotransduction and intra-cellular nuclear architecture.