Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study is to identify IL17A-induced transcripts differentially regulated by DEX in hASMCs. Methods:Primary hASMCs were treated for 4 hours with IL17A or DEX or both combined. mRNA profiles were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina GAIIx. Each treatment has 3 biological replicates. Results: Using an optimized data analysis workflow, we mapped about 40 million sequence reads per sample (>97% clean reads) to the human genome (build mm9) and identified 48,162 transcripts in hASMC samples. Conclusions: Our study showed that DEX regulated IL17A targt genes in both synergistic and suppressive manner in hASMCs. This is the first detailed analysis of transcriptoms of hASMCs in response to IL17A and DEX. Overall design: Primary hASMCs were treated for 4 hours with IL17A or DEX or both combined.
Project description:Patients with severe, treatment-refractory asthma are at risk for death from acute exacerbations. The cytokine IL17A has been associated with airway inflammation in severe asthma, and novel therapeutic targets within this pathway are urgently needed. We recently showed that IL17A increases airway contractility by activating the procontractile GTPase RhoA. Here, we explore the therapeutic potential of targeting the RhoA pathway activated by IL17A by inhibiting RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), intracellular activators of RhoA. We first used a ribosomal pulldown approach to profile mouse airway smooth muscle by qPCR and identified Arhgef12 as highly expressed among a panel of RhoGEFs. ARHGEF12 was also the most highly expressed RhoGEF in patients with asthma, as found by RNA sequencing. Tracheal rings from Arhgef12-KO mice and WT rings treated with a RhoGEF inhibitor had evidence of decreased contractility and RhoA activation in response to IL17A treatment. In a house dust mite model of allergic sensitization, Arhgef12-KO mice had decreased airway hyperresponsiveness without effects on airway inflammation. Taken together, our results show that Arhgef12 is necessary for IL17A-induced airway contractility and identify a therapeutic target for severe asthma.
Project description:To elucidate the regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling under pro-asthmatic conditions, cultured human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells were treated with proinflammatory cytokines or GR ligands alone and in combination, and then examined for induced changes in ligand-dependent and -independent GR activation and downstream signaling events. Ligand stimulation with either cortisone or dexamethsone (DEX) acutely elicited GR translocation to the nucleus and, comparably, ligand-independent stimulation either with the Th2 cytokine, IL-13, or the pleiotropic cytokine combination, IL-1?/TNF?, also acutely evoked GR translocation. The latter response was potentiated by combined exposure of cells to GR ligand and cytokine. Similarly, treatment with either DEX or IL-13 alone induced GR phosphorylation at its serine-211 residue (GR(Ser211)), denoting its activated state, and combined treatment with DEX+IL-13 elicited heightened and sustained GR(Ser211) phosphorylation. Interestingly, the above ligand-independent GR responses to IL-13 alone were not associated with downstream GR binding to its consensus DNA sequence or GR transactivation, whereas both DEX-induced GR:DNA binding and transcriptional activity were significantly heightened in the presence of IL-13, coupled to increased recruitment of the transcriptional co-factor, MED14. The stimulated GR signaling responses to DEX were prevented in IL-13-exposed cells wherein GR(Ser211) phosphorylation was suppressed either by transfection with specific serine phosphorylation-deficient mutant GRs or treatment with inhibitors of the MAPKs, ERK1/2 and JNK. Collectively, these novel data highlight a heretofore-unidentified homeostatic mechanism in HASM cells that involves pro-asthmatic cytokine-driven, MAPK-mediated, non-ligand-dependent GR activation that confers heightened glucocorticoid ligand-stimulated GR signaling. These findings raise the consideration that perturbations in this homeostatic cytokine-driven GR signaling mechanism may be responsible, at least in part, for the insensirtivity to glucocorticoid therapy that is commonly seen in individuals with severe asthma.
Project description:In leporids, IL17A had been implicated in the host defense against extracellular pathogens, such as Francisella tularensis that infects hares and rabbits and causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we studied IL17A from five lagomorphs, European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, brush rabbit, European brown hare, and American pika. We observed that this protein is highly conserved between these species, with a similarity of 97-99% in leporids and ~88% between leporids and American pika. The exon/intron structure, N-glycosylation sites, and cysteine residues are conserved between lagomorphs. However, at codon 88, one of the interaction sites between IL17A and its receptor IL17RA, there is an Arg>Pro mutation that only occurs in European rabbit and European brown hare. This could induce critical alterations in the IL17A structure and conformation and consequently modify its function. The differences observed between leporids and humans or rodents might also represent important alterations in protein structure and function. In addition, as for other interleukins, IL17A sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than the sequences of human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. This study gives further support to the hypothesis that European rabbit might be a more suitable animal model for studies on human IL17.
Project description:Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a multifunctional protein involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Glucocorticoid (GC) is the first-line therapy to mitigate airway inflammation in asthma. Previous pieces of evidence showed that GC has divergent effects on PTX3 production in various cell types. The molecular mechanisms controlling PTX3 expression in HASMC are, however, not yet characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that the synthetic GC, dexamethasone (DEX) increases the expression of PTX3 both at the protein and mRNA levels. We also found that such an effect of DEX was dependent on de novo protein synthesis and the GC receptor (GR). While DEX increases PTX3 mRNA stability, it did not affect its promoter activity. Interestingly, HASMC pre-treated with p42/p44 ERK inhibitor, but not with p38 or JNK-MAPK inhibitors, significantly interfered with DEX-induced PTX3 secretion. Taken together, our data suggest that GC regulates PTX3 expression in HASMC through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms in a GR and ERK-dependent manner.
Project description:The Dgcr14/Es2 gene is located in a chromosomal region the loss of which has been associated with DiGeorge syndrome, a cause of immunodeficiency, heart defects, and skeletal abnormalities. However, the role of DGCR14 protein remains to be elucidated. Here, I found that DGCR14 protein acts as a coactivator of ROR?t in TH17 cells. Biochemical purification of the ROR? coregulator complex allowed me to identify the associated DGCR14 protein by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Overexpression of Dgcr14 mRNA enhanced ROR?t-mediated transcriptional activity and facilitated TH17 cell differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of Dgcr14 reduced Il17a mRNA expression. I also found that DGCR14 associated with ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2, also called RpS6ka3) and BAZ1B, both of which were recruited to the Il17a promoter during TH17 cell differentiation. Knockdown of Baz1b or RpS6ka3 also reduced Il17a mRNA expression, and Baz1b knockdown increased transcriptional suppressive histone marks (histone H3K9me3) on the Il17a promoter. My findings showed the roles of DGCR14, RSK2, and BAZ1B in the transcriptional regulation of Il17a mRNA during TH17 cell differentiation.
Project description:Glucocorticoids, which activate glucocorticoid receptor signaling and thus modulate gene expression, are widely used to treat asthma. Glucocorticoids exert their therapeutic effects in part through modulating airway smooth muscle structure and function. However, the effects of genes that are regulated by GCs on airway function are not fully understood. Here, we used transcription profiling to characterize the effects of a potent glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, on cultured human airway smooth muscle gene expression at 4 and 24 hours. This study examined differential gene expression induced by treatment of cultured human airway smooth muscle cells with dexamethasone. There were 3 groups of samples and each group had 4 biological replicates. Group 1 was no treatment, Group 2 was dexamethasone (dex) treatment for 4 hours, Group 3 was dex treatment for 24 hours. Cultures were synchronized so harvest occurred at the same time for all three groups. 2 samples are not included in this analysis (based on unsupervised clustering of samples and diagnostic plots).
Project description:Interleukin-17 plays important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to examine the associations between polymorphisms in the IL17A and IL17F genes and RA.We examined 422 RA patients and 337 subjects as a control group. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the IL17A (rs2275913) and IL17F (rs763780, rs11465553, rs2397084) genes were genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays from Life Technologies Genomic.There were no significant differences in distribution of IL17A and IL17F genotypes and alleles between RA patients and control group. There were no significant associations between IL17A and IL17F genotypes and age of disease diagnosis rheumatoid factor, erosive disease as well as extra-articular manifestations.The results of this study suggest, that IL17A and IL17F gene polymorphism are not the important factors associated with susceptibility and some clinical parameters of RA in a Polish population.
Project description:IL23/IL17 pathway plays an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In general, the genes encoding the cytokines are genetically polymorphic and polymorphisms in genes IL23R and IL17 have been proved to be associated with its susceptibility to inflammatory diseases as well as cancer including colorectal cancer. Moreover, it has been shown that these interleukins are involved in anti-tumor or pro-tumor effects of various cancers. Previously, we showed that there is a significant association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms as well as the occurrence of colorectal cancer and the clinical features of the disease. The purpose of the present work is to investigate an association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms in 102 Tunisian patients with colorectal cancer treatment. The association was analyzed by statistical tools. We found that patients with mutated genotypes of IL17A G197A SNP could be a risk factor for the inefficiency of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unlike IL17F variant, patients with wild type genotypes require surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. On the one hand, we found no evidence that supports a significant association between IL23R polymorphism and the combined genotypes of these three genes and the colorectal cancer treatment. On the other hand, we showed that there is an important interaction between IL17A/IL17F polymorphisms and the stage of the disease as well as its treatment. Finally, patients with IL17F wild type genotype highlighted that there is a valid longer OS without all treatments and with radiotherapy and a neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In contrast, we observed that there are no relationships between IL17A, IL23R and the survival of these patients neither with nor without the treatment. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in IL17A and IL17F genes may be a predictive source of colorectal cancer therapy type. Therefore, IL17F may serve as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer.
Project description:PURPOSE:Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-17A (IL17A) and Interleukin-32 (IL32), known to enhance natural killer and T cell responses, are also elevated in human malignancies and linked to poor clinical outcomes. To address this paradox, we evaluated relation between IL17A and IL32 expression and other inflammation- and T cell response-associated genes in breast tumors. METHODS:TaqMan-based gene expression analysis was carried out in seventy-eight breast tumors. The association between IL17A and IL32 transcript levels and T cell response genes, ER status as well as lymph node status was also examined in breast tumors from TCGA dataset. RESULTS:IL17A expression was detected in 32.7% ER-positive and 84.6% ER-negative tumors, with higher expression in the latter group (26.2 vs 7.1-fold, p < 0.01). ER-negative tumors also showed higher expression of IL32 as opposed to ER-positive tumors (8.7 vs 2.5-fold, p < 0.01). Expression of both IL17A and IL32 genes positively correlated with CCL5, GNLY, TBX21, IL21 and IL23 transcript levels (p < 0.01). Amongst ER-positive tumors, higher IL32 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastases (p < 0.05). Conversely, in ER-negative subtype, high IL17A and IL32 expression was seen in patients with negative lymph node status (p < 0.05). Tumors with high IL32 and IL17A expression showed higher expression of TH1 response genes studied, an observation validated by similar analysis in the TCGA breast tumors (n=1041). Of note, these tumors were characterized by low expression of a potentially immunosuppressive isoform of IL32 (IL32?). CONCLUSION:These results suggest that high expression of both IL17A and IL32 leads to enhancement of T cell responses. Our study, thus, provides basis for the emergence of strong T cell responses in an inflammatory milieu that have been shown to be associated with better prognosis in ER-negative breast cancer.