Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Flammulina velutipes TR19, which was newly isolated from commercial strains in Japan. The genes related to fruiting body formation in the basidiomycete were identified by whole-genome analysis.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify and characterize new Flammulina velutipes laccases from its whole-genome sequence. Of the 15 putative laccase genes detected in the F. velutipes genome, four new laccase genes (fvLac-1, fvLac-2, fvLac3, and fvLac-4) were found to contain four complete copper-binding regions (ten histidine residues and one cysteine residue) and four cysteine residues involved in forming disulfide bridges, fvLac-1, fvLac-2, fvLac3, and fvLac-4, encoding proteins consisting of 516, 518, 515, and 533 amino acid residues, respectively. Potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr) were identified in the cDNA sequence of fvLac-1 (Asn-454), fvLac-2 (Asn-437 and Asn-455), fvLac-3 (Asn-111 and Asn-237), and fvLac4 (Asn-402 and Asn-457). In addition, the first 19~20 amino acid residues of these proteins were predicted to comprise signal peptides. Laccase activity assays and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses clearly reveal that CuSO4 affects the induction and the transcription level of these laccase genes.
Project description:Flammulina velutipes is a fungus with health and medicinal benefits that has been used for consumption and cultivation in East Asia. F. velutipes is also known to degrade lignocellulose and produce ethanol. The overlapping interests of mushroom production and wood bioconversion make F. velutipes an attractive new model for fungal wood related studies. Here, we present the complete sequence of the F. velutipes genome. This is the first sequenced genome for a commercially produced edible mushroom that also degrades wood. The 35.6-Mb genome contained 12,218 predicted protein-encoding genes and 287 tRNA genes assembled into 11 scaffolds corresponding with the 11 chromosomes of strain KACC42780. The 88.4-kb mitochondrial genome contained 35 genes. Well-developed wood degrading machinery with strong potential for lignin degradation (69 auxiliary activities, formerly FOLymes) and carbohydrate degradation (392 CAZymes), along with 58 alcohol dehydrogenase genes were highly expressed in the mycelium, demonstrating the potential application of this organism to bioethanol production. Thus, the newly uncovered wood degrading capacity and sequential nature of this process in F. velutipes, offer interesting possibilities for more detailed studies on either lignin or (hemi-) cellulose degradation in complex wood substrates. The mutual interest in wood degradation by the mushroom industry and (ligno-)cellulose biomass related industries further increase the significance of F. velutipes as a new model.
Project description:Twelve Flammulina velutipes strains originating from Poland were identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing. Based on the sequences obtained, the genomic relationship of the analyzed strains was determined. All F. velutipes strains were also characterized using Biolog FF MicroPlates to obtain data on C-substrate utilization and mitochondrial activity. The ability to decompose various substrates differed among the F. velutipes strains up to five times. The highest catabolic activities were characteristic for only two strains with capabilities to decompose up to 22 carbon sources. The correlation between carbon repression and laccase production by F. velutipes was analyzed based on glucose assimilation by these strains. Moreover, the influence of metal ions (Cu(2+), Cd(2+)), veratric and ferulic acids, and temperature on laccase activities in the analyzed strains was determined. The results obtained proved that all the inducers influenced laccase expression in almost all the analyzed strains. However, the degree of induction depended not only on the strain used but also on the day of the induction.
Project description:Background:Sexual development in Flammulina velutipes is controlled by two different mating type loci (HD and PR). The HD locus contains homeodomain (Hd) genes on two separate HD subloci: HD-a and HD-b. While the functionality of the HD-b sublocus has been largely confirmed, the status and content of the HD-a sublocus has remained unclear. Methods:To examine the function of the HD-a sublocus, genome sequences of a series of F. velutipes strains were analyzed and tested through series of amplification by specific primer sets. Furthermore, activity of di-allelic HD-a locus was confirmed by crossing strains with different combinations of HD-a and HD-b subloci. Results:Sublocus HD-b contained a large variety of fixed Hd1/Hd2 gene pairs, while the HD-a sublocus either contained a conserved Hd2 gene or, a newly discovered Hd1 gene that was also conserved. Identification of whole HD loci, that is, the contents of HD-a and HD-b subloci in a strain, revealed that strains with similar HD-b subloci could still form normal dikaryons if the two genes at the HD-a sublocus differed. At least di-allelic HD-a sublocus, is thus indicated to be actively involved in mating type compatibility. Conclusions:HD-a sublocus is active and di-allelic. Using the new information on the HD subloci, primers sets were developed that specifically amplify HD-a or HD-b subloci in the majority of F. velutipes strains. In this way, unknown HD mating types of F. velutipes can now be quickly identified, and HD mating type compatibility conferred by HD-a or HD-b can be confirmed by PCR.
Project description:Flammulina velutipes, one of the most popular mushroom species in the world, has been recognized as a useful model system to study the biochemical and physiological aspects of the formation and elongation of fruit body. However, few reports have been published on the regulation of fruiting body formation in F. velutipes at the molecular level. In this study, a jacalin-related lectin gene from F. velutipes was characterized. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Fv-JRL1 clustered with other basidiomycete jacalin-like lectins. Moreover, the transcriptional pattern of the Fv-JRL1 gene in different developmental stages of F. velutipes implied that Fv-JRL1 could be important for formation of fruit body. Additionally, RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression analyses provided powerful evidence that the lectin gene Fv-JRL1 from F. velutipes plays important roles in fruiting body formation.
Project description:The initiation of sexual development in the important edible and medicinal mushroom Flammulina velutipes is controlled by special genes at two different, independent, mating type (MAT) loci: HD and PR. We expanded our understanding of the F. velutipes mating type system by analyzing the MAT loci from a series of strains. The HD locus of F. velutipes houses homeodomain genes (Hd genes) on two separated locations: sublocus HD-a and HD-b. The HD-b subloci contained strain-specific Hd1/Hd2 gene pairs, and crosses between strains with different HD-b subloci indicated a role in mating. The function of the HD-a sublocus remained undecided. Many, but not all strains contained the same conserved Hd2 gene at the HD-a sublocus. The HD locus usually segregated as a whole, though we did detect one new HD locus with a HD-a sublocus from one parental strain, and a HD-b sublocus from the other. The PR locus of F. velutipes contained pheromone receptor (STE3) and pheromone precursor (Pp) genes at two locations, sublocus PR-a and PR-b. PR-a and PR-b both contained sets of strain-specific STE3 and Pp genes, indicating a role in mating. PR-a and PR-b cosegregated in our experiments. However, the identification of additional strains with identical PR-a, yet different PR-b subloci, demonstrated that PR subloci can recombine within the PR locus. In conclusion, at least three of the four MAT subloci seem to participate in mating, and new HD and PR loci can be generated through intralocus recombination in F. velutipes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Flammulina velutipes has been recognized as a useful basidiomycete with nutritional and medicinal values. Ergosterol, one of the main sterols of F. velutipes is an important precursor of novel anticancer and anti-HIV drugs. Therefore, many studies have focused on the biosynthesis of ergosterol and have attempted to upregulate its content in multiple organisms. Great progress has been made in understanding the regulation of ergosterol biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, this molecular mechanism in F. velutipes remains largely uncharacterized. RESULTS:In this study, nine cDNA libraries, prepared from mycelia, young fruiting bodies and mature fruiting bodies of F. velutipes (three replicate sets for each stage), were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 platform, resulting in at least 6.63 Gb of clean reads from each library. We studied the changes in genes and metabolites in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway of F. velutipes during the development of fruiting bodies. A total of 13 genes (6 upregulated and 7 downregulated) were differentially expressed during the development from mycelia to young fruiting bodies (T1), while only 1 gene (1 downregulated) was differentially expressed during the development from young fruiting bodies to mature fruiting bodies (T2). A total of 7 metabolites (3 increased and 4 reduced) were found to have changed in content during T1, and 4 metabolites (4 increased) were found to be different during T2. A conjoint analysis of the genome-wide connection network revealed that the metabolites that were more likely to be regulated were primarily in the post-squalene pathway. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides useful information for understanding the regulation of ergosterol biosynthesis and the regulatory relationship between metabolites and genes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway during the development of fruiting bodies in F. velutipes.
Project description:Recently, selenium (Se) enriched mushrooms have been exploited as dietary Se supplements, but our knowledge of the metabolic process during the Se enrichment process is far from complete. In this study, the uptake, tolerance and reduction of selenite in a widely cultivated mushroom, Flammulina velutipes, was investigated. The results showed that pH variation (from 5.5-7.5), metabolic inhibitor (0.1 mM 2,4-DNP) and P or S starvation led to 11-26% decreases in the selenite uptake rate of F. velutipes. This indicates that a minor portion of the selenite uptake was metabolism dependent, whereas a carrier-facilitated passive transport may be crucial. Growth inhibition of F. velutipes initiated at 0.1 mM selenite (11% decrease in the growth rate) and complete growth inhibition occurred at 3 mM selenite. A selenite concentration of 0.03-0.1 mM was recommended to maintain the balance between mycelium production and Se enrichment. F. velutipes was capable of reducing selenite to elemental Se [Se(0)] including Se(0) nanoparticles, possibly as a detoxification mechanism. This process depended on both selenite concentration and metabolism activity. Overall, the data obtained provided some basic information for the cultivation of the selenized F. velutipes, and highlighted the opportunity of using mushrooms for the production of Se(0) nanoparticles.
Project description:Two new SAM-dependent methyltransferase encoding genes (fvsmt1 and fvsmt2) were identified from the genome of Flammulina velutipes. In order to make a comprehensive characterization of both genes, we performed in silico analysis of both genes and used qRT-PCR to reveal their expression patterns during the development of F. velutipes. There are 4 and 6 exons with total length of 693 and 978?bp in fvsmt2 and fvsmt1, respectively. The deduced proteins, i.e., FVSMT1 and FVSMT2 contained 325 and 230 amino acids with molecular weight 36297 and 24894?Da, respectively. Both proteins contained a SAM-dependent catalytic domain with signature motifs (I, p-I, II, and III) defining the SAM fold. SAM-dependent catalytic domain is located either in the middle or at the N-terminal of FVSMT2 and FVSMT1, respectively. Alignment and phylogenic analysis showed that FVSMT1 is a homolog to a protein-arginine omega-N-methyltransferase, while FVSMT2 is of cinnamoyl CoA O-methyltransferase type and predicted subcellular locations of these proteins are mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively. qRT-PCR showed that fvsmt1 and fvsmt2 expression was regulated in different developmental stages. The maximum expression levels of fvsmt1 and fvsmt2 were observed in stipe elongation, while no difference was found in mycelium and pileus. These results positively demonstrate that both the methyltransferase encoding genes are involved in the stipe elongation of F. velutipes.