Project description:BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. METHODS: To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. RESULTS: We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker.
Project description:Toxoplasma strains are known to inhibit the expression of several interferon-gamma induced genes, and a type II strain was shown to dysregulate genome-wide responses to interferon-gamma in human fibroblasts (Kim et al., 2007, J Immunol.). In this study we aimed to determine the effect of infection with three clonal lineages of Toxoplasma, type I, II, and III strains on genome-wide interferon-gamma induced transcription in murine macrophages. We also assessed the effect of the two main Toxoplasma modulators of mouse macrophage transcription, ROP16 and GRA15 (Jensen et al., 2011, Cell Host Microbe). We used Affymetrix microarrays to analyze host cell transcription after Toxoplasma infection and interferon-gamma stimulation. RAW264.7 murine macrophages were left uninfected or infected with type I (RH), type I ?rop16 (RH ?rop16), type II (Pru), type II ?gra15 (Pru ?gra15), or type II (CEP) parasites at an MOI ~5 for 18 hours and subsequently stimulated with murine IFN-? for six hours. Plaque assays were done to assess parasite viability. Total RNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse 430A 2.0 gene chips.
Project description:Celiac sprue is a T-cell-mediated enteropathy elicited in genetically susceptible individuals by dietary gluten proteins. To initiate and propagate inflammation, proteolytically resistant gluten peptides must be translocated across the small intestinal epithelium and presented to DQ2-restricted T cells, but the effectors enabling this translocation under normal and inflammatory conditions are not well understood. We demonstrate that a fluorescently labeled antigenic 33-mer gluten peptide is translocated intact across a T84 cultured epithelial cell monolayer and that preincubation of the monolayer with media from gluten-stimulated, celiac patient-derived intestinal T cells enhances the apical-to-basolateral flux of this peptide in a dose-dependent, saturable manner. The permeability-enhancing activity of activated T-cell media is inhibited by blocking antibodies against either interferon-gamma or its receptor and is recapitulated using recombinant interferon-gamma. At saturating levels of interferon-gamma, activated T-cell media does not further increase transepithelial peptide flux, indicating the primacy of interferon-gamma as an effector of increased epithelial permeability during inflammation. Reducing the assay temperature to 4 degrees C reverses the effect of interferon-gamma but does not reduce basal peptide flux occurring in the absence of interferon-gamma, suggesting active transcellular transport of intact peptides is increased during inflammation. A panel of disease-relevant gluten peptides exhibited an inverse correlation between size and transepithelial flux but no apparent sequence constraints. Anti-interferon-gamma therapy may mitigate the vicious cycle of gluten-induced interferon-gamma secretion and interferon-gamma-mediated enhancement of gluten peptide flux but is unlikely to prevent translocation of gluten peptides in the absence of inflammatory conditions.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) modulate various biological processes, but their role in host antiviral responses is largely unknown. Here we identify a lncRNA as a key regulator of antiviral innate immunity. Following from the observation that a lncRNA that we call negative regulator of antiviral response (NRAV) was dramatically downregulated during infection with several viruses, we ectopically expressed NRAV in human cells or transgenic mice and found that it significantly promotes influenza A virus (IAV) replication and virulence. Conversely, silencing NRAV suppressed IAV replication and virus production, suggesting that reduction of NRAV is part of the host antiviral innate immune response to virus infection. NRAV negatively regulates the initial transcription of multiple critical interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3 and MxA, by affecting histone modification of these genes. Our results provide evidence for a lncRNA in modulating the antiviral interferon response.
Project description:Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a potent growth-inhibitory cytokine also endowed with differentiating activity on neural cells. Binding of IFN-gamma to its high-affinity receptor induces a rapid and transient activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The mechanism coupling the IFN-gamma receptor (IFN-gamma-R) to PLA2 activation is not clearly defined, and no information is available on this mechanism in neuroblast cells. We have tested the hypothesis that GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) may couple the IFN-gamma-R to PLA2 in the human neuroblastoma (NB) cell line LAN-5. Incubation of NB cells with IFN-gamma resulted in a rapid increase in [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) release, and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with anti-IFN-gamma antibodies. IFN-gamma-stimulated AA release was still observed in permeabilized cells that were blocked by pretreatment with anti-IFN-gamma-R antibodies. Exposure of permeabilized LAN-5 cells to guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]), a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, induced a dose-dependent release of [3H]AA. A non-specific nucleotide effect was excluded, since similar stimulatory effects on AA mobilization were not observed by GTP, ATP, CTP, ADP and GDP. IFN-gamma-stimulated AA release was completely blocked by the guanine nucleotide analogue that inhibits G-protein function, guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]). A role for G-proteins in IFN-gamma-R coupling to PLA2 was further supported by the inhibition of IFN-gamma-induced [3H]AA release by treatment of permeabilized cells with pertussis toxin and with the antiserum against the common alpha-subunits of G-proteins. To determine a possible contribution to AA mobilization by the phospholipase C and diacyglycerol lipase pathway or by protein kinase C activation, the effects of neomycin, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate), a direct activator of protein kinase C, were investigated. Neither neomycin nor PMA affected either basal or IFN-gamma-stimulated AA release. Ca2+ concentration, which has been shown to regulate the activity of some PLA2s, does not appear to play an important role in the regulation of the IFN-gamma-stimulated PLA2 activity, since incubating permeabilized cells in different concentrations of Ca2+ induced AA release without affecting the IFN-gamma response. Altogether, these findings suggest the existence of IFN-gamma-R, which couples a Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 activation via pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins.
Project description:Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify genes induced upon type I and II interferon response and how loss of PRC2/EZH2 impacts their induction. Methods: mRNA-seq from cells treated with universal type I IFN alpha/beta or IFN gamma. miRNA-seq from GBM-derived tumor samples. Overall design: mRNA-seq from cells treated with IFN alpha/beta or IFN gamma, each with two independent replicates.
Project description:Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), a pleotropic cytokine, has been shown to be important to the function of virtually all immune cells and both innate and adaptive immune responses. In 1986, early clinical trials of this cytokine began to evaluate its therapeutic potential. The initial studies focused on the tolerability and pharmacology of IFN-gamma and systematically determined its antitumor and anti-infection activities. In the 20-plus years since those first trials, IFN-gamma has been used in a wide variety of clinical indications, which are reviewed in this article.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is a common central nervous system infection in individuals with immunocompromised immune systems, such as AIDS patients. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) is the main cytokine mediating protection against T. gondii. Our previous studies found that IFN-gamma significantly inhibits T. gondii in astrocytes via an IFN-gamma-inducible GTP-binding protein (IGTP)-dependent mechanism. The IGTP-dependent-, IFN-gamma-stimulated inhibition is not understood, but recent studies found that IGTP induces disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in macrophages. In the current study, we have further investigated the mechanism of IFN-gamma inhibition and the role of IGTP in the vacuolar disruption in murine astrocytes. Vacuolar disruption was found to be dependent upon IGTP, as PV disruption was not observed in IGTP-deficient (IGTP(-/-)) astrocytes and PV disruption could be induced in IGTP(-/-) astrocytes transfected with IGTP. Live-cell imaging studies using green fluorescent protein-IGTP found that IGTP is delivered to the PV via the host cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) early after invasion and that IGTP condenses into vesicle-like structures on the vacuole just prior to PV disruption, suggesting that IGTP is involved in PV disruption. Intravacuolar movement of the parasite occurred just prior to PV disruption. In some instances, IFN-gamma induced parasite egression. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies indicate that the host cell ER fuses with the PV prior to vacuolar disruption. On the basis of these results, we postulate a mechanism by which ER/PV fusion is a crucial event in PV disruption. Fusion of the ER with the PV, releasing calcium into the vacuole, may also be the mechanism by which intravacuolar parasite movement and IFN-gamma-induced parasite egression occur.
Project description:Salicylate enhanced the interferon-gamma-dependent activation of two transcription factors in a murine macrophage cell line: signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and interferon-gamma-responsive factor 1. Salicylate alone did not activate these transcription factors. This enhancement was reflected by increased DNA-binding activities and was the consequence of prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation of these transcription factors following interferon-gamma treatment. However, salicylate did not directly inhibit protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity in nuclear extracts of interferon-gamma-treated cells. The enhanced activation of STAT1 resulted in increased induction of mRNA encoding interferon regulatory factor-1. These results not only demonstrate that aspirin and its metabolite salicylate may have pro-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory effects but also raise the possibility that new cellular targets may be identified for modulating the Janus kinase-STAT signalling pathway.
Project description:Toxoplasma strains are known to inhibit the expression of several interferon-gamma induced genes, and a type II strain was shown to dysregulate genome-wide responses to interferon-gamma in human fibroblasts (Kim et al., 2007, J Immunol.). In this study we aimed to determine the effect of infection with three clonal lineages of Toxoplasma, type I, II, and III strains on genome-wide interferon-gamma induced transcription in murine macrophages. We also assessed the effect of the two main Toxoplasma modulators of mouse macrophage transcription, ROP16 and GRA15 (Jensen et al., 2011, Cell Host Microbe). We used Affymetrix microarrays to analyze host cell transcription after Toxoplasma infection and interferon-gamma stimulation. RAW264.7 murine macrophages were left uninfected or infected with type I (RH), type I ∆rop16 (RH ∆rop16), type II (Pru), type II ∆gra15 (Pru ∆gra15), or type II (CEP) parasites at an MOI ~5 for 18 hours and subsequently stimulated with murine IFN-γ for six hours. Plaque assays were done to assess parasite viability. Total RNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse 430A 2.0 gene chips.