Analysis of gene expression, motif and pattern of m6A modified region and m6A enrichment level in Ocular melanoma and Melanocyte cell lines. Gene expressin analysis of METTL3 knock down in PIG1, ALKBH5 knock down and HINT2 over expression in OCM1.
ABSTRACT: Analysis of gene expression, motif and pattern of m6A modified region and m6A enrichment level in Ocular melanoma and Melanocyte cell lines. Gene expressin analysis of METTL3 knock down in PIG1, ALKBH5 knock down and HINT2 over expression in OCM1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is an emerging layer of epigenetic regulation which is widely implicated in the tumorigenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), offering a novel perspective for investigating molecular pathogenesis of this disease. The role of AlkB homolog 5 (ALKBH5), one of the m6A demethylases, has not been fully explored in HCC. Here we clarify the biological profile and potential mechanisms of ALKBH5 in HCC. METHODS:Expression of ALKBH5 and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of HCC were evaluated using tissue microarrays and online datasets. And biological effects of ALKBH5 in HCC were determined in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) combined with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and following m6A dot blot, MeRIP-qPCR, RIP-qPCR or dual luciferase reporter assays were employed to screen and validate the candidate targets of ALKBH5. RESULTS:We demonstrated that ALKBH5 was down-regulated in HCC, and decreased ALKBH5 expression was an independent prognostic factor of worse survival in HCC patients. Functionally, ALKBH5 suppressed the proliferation and invasion capabilities of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ALKBH5-mediated m6A demethylation led to a post-transcriptional inhibition of LY6/PLAUR Domain Containing 1 (LYPD1), which could be recognized and stabilized by the m6A effector IGF2BP1. In addition, we identified that LYPD1 induced oncogenic behaviors of tumors in contrast to ALKBH5. Dysregulation of ALKBH5/LYPD1 axis impelled the progression of HCC. CONCLUSION:Our study reveals that ALKBH5, characterized as a tumor suppressor, attenuates the expression of LYPD1 via an m6A-dependent manner in HCC cells. Our findings enrich the landscape of m6A-modulated tumor malignancy, and provide new insights into potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of HCC treatment.
Project description:Background:Osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common malignant bone tumors. Plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) is a well-known oncogenic long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). However, to date, the regulatory mechanism of PVT1 upregulation in OS remains unknown. Methods:qRT-PCR was carried out to test the expression level of PVT1 and ALKBH5. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and RNA pull-down assays were performed to detect the interaction of PVT1 with ALKBH5 and YTHDF2. Methylated RNA immune-precipitation (MeRIP) was used to examine the N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of PVT1 transcript. Results:In this study, we found that PVT1 expression was upregulated in OS tissues and cells and significantly related with clinical stage, tumor size, and prognosis of patients with OS. Further investigation revealed that N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) demethylase ALKBH5 could associate with PVT1 and suppress its degradation. ALKBH5 decreased the m6A modification of PVT1, thus inhibiting the binding of reader protein YTHDF2 in PVT1. Functionally, ALKBH5-mediated PVT1 upregulation promoted the OS cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions:Our study suggests that ALKBH5-mediated m6A modification of PVT1 contributes to OS tumorigenesis.
Project description:Background:The modification and regulation of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) at mRNA level can affect the development and progression in various tumors. ALKBH5, as an m6A demethylase, plays different roles in tumors by regulating the m6A modification of mRNA. However, its role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. Methods:First, levels of ALKBH5 in RCC tissues and cell lines were verified by qRT-PCR and western blot. We analyzed the relationship between ALKBH5 and the clinicopathological characteristics of RCC patients and the influence of ALKBH5 on the prognosis of patients. Then we generated ALBKH5-overexpression, ALBKH5-knockdown stable RCC cell lines and their control cell lines. Through cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, cell invasion and tumor migration assay, cell cycle assay and xenograft studies, we studied the ALKBH5 roles in RCC cell lines. AURKB was predicted to be its potential target based on TCGA database analysis and verified by western blot. The role of AURKB in RCC was verified by TCGA database and Kaplan-Meier analysis with TMA immunohistochemical analysis. Finally, the specific molecular mechanism of ALKBH5 targeting AURKB was explored by dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), m6A dot-blot assay, m6A RNA Immunoprecipitation (MeRIP) assay, and mRNA stability assay. Results:We found that ALKBH5 was highly expressed in both RCC tumor tissues and cell lines. Clinicopathological analysis showed that high ALKBH5 expression was associated with larger tumor volume (P=0.017) and higher TNM staging (P=0.006), and worse prognosis (log rank: P=0.0199). The cellular functional assays showed that stably overexpression ALKBH5 could promote the cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration and cell invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro and promote tumor growth in vivo. In contrast, ALKBH5 knocked down inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro. Based on TCGA database analysis, AURKB was predicted highly expressed in RCC and a potential target of ALKBH5. Both database prediction and TMA immunohistochemical analysis supported that AURKB could affect the prognosis of RCC patients (P values of 5.5e-08 and 0.0004, respectively) and was regulated by ALKBH5 expression level. Subsequent mechanism experiments showed that ALKBH5 regulated the expression of AURKB by regulating the stability of AURKB mRNA in the m6A-dependent manner, and finally promoted cell proliferation. Furthermore, we found that hypoxia-induced HIF could up-regulate both expressions of AURKB and ALKBH5. Conclusions:Our findings suggest that ALKBH5 may play a carcinogenic role in renal cell carcinoma by stabilizing AURKB mRNA in a m6A-dependent manner. These data suggest that ALKBH5 may play a key role in RCC and targeting the ALKBH5 signaling pathway may be a promising strategy for the treatment of RCC.
Project description:ALKBH5 is the RNA N(6)-methyladenosine (m6A) demethylase. To under sthand the function and mechnism of ALKBH5 in human acute myeloid leukemia, we compared the m6A profiling in wild-type, ALKBH5-knock-down, and ALKBH5 rescue THP1 cells. Overall design: m6A-seq in wild-type or ALKBH5 knock-down, or ALKBH5 rescue THP1 cells
Project description:Renal tubule-interstitial fibrosis is related to chronic kidney disease progression and a typical feature of the aging kidney. Epigenetic modifications of fibrosis-prone genes regulate the development of renal fibrosis. As a kind of "epigenetic diet", soy isoflavone genistein was reported to have renal protective action and epigenetic-modulating effects. However, its renal protection role and underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully clarified. Herein, we showed that genistein exhibits a demonstrable anti-fibrotic effect on kidney <i>in vivo</i> UUO (unilateral ureteral occlusion) model and renal epithelial cells <i>in vitro</i> model. The mechanism is strongly associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and m6A RNA demethylase ALKBH5. Mouse fibrotic kidneys induced by UUO exhibited adverse expression of renal fibrosis-related proteins and significant increases in the total m6A level. As an eraser, ALKBH5 showed severer suppression in the renal fibrosis process. However, genistein pretreatment restored ALKBH5 loss remarkably and reduced renal fibrosis, abnormal protein, and inflammatory markers. The examination of possible mechanisms revealed that genistein promoted ALKBH5 and maybe induced the level of mRNA m6A methylation in some epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related transcription factors. We found snail was the critical regulator and critical for the protective role of genistein. To verify the relationship between ALKBH5 and snail, we generated knockdown and overexpression of ALKBH5 cells <i>in vitro</i>. ALKBH5 knockdown enhanced the mesenchymal phenotype marker ?-smooth muscle actin and snail expression. In agreement, overexpression ALKBH5 increased epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin and reduced snail expression. In conclusion, genistein increased renal ALKBH5 expression in UUO-induced renal fibrosis and reduced RNA m6A levels and ameliorates renal damages.
Project description:BACKGROUND:N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant reversible methylation modification of eukaryotic mRNA, and it plays vital roles in tumourigenesis. This study aimed to explore the role of the m6A demethylase ALKBH5 in pancreatic cancer (PC). METHODS:The expression of ALKBH5 and its clinicopathological impact were evaluated in PC cohorts. The effects of ALKBH5 on the biological characteristics of PC cells were investigated on the basis of gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses. Subcutaneous and orthotopic models further uncovered the role of ALKBH5 in tumour growth. mRNA and m6A sequencing and assays of m6A methylated RNA immunoprecipitation-qPCR (MeRIP-qPCR) were performed to identify the targeted effect of ALKBH5 on PER1. P53-binding sites in the ALKBH5 promoter were investigated by ChIP and luciferase assays to reveal the interplay between ALKBH5 and PER1-activated ATM-CHK2-P53/CDC25C signalling. RESULTS:ALKBH5 loss characterized the occurrence and poor clinicopathological manifestations in patients with PC. Overexpression of ALKBH5 reduced tumoural proliferative, migrative, invasive activities in vitro and ameliorated tumour growth in vivo, whereas ALKBH5 knockdown facilitated PC progression. Mechanistically, ALKBH5 posttranscriptionally activated PER1 by m6A demethylation in an m6A-YTHDF2-dependent manner. PER1 upregulation led to the reactivation of ATM-CHK2-P53/CDC25C signalling, which inhibited cell growth. P53-induced activation of ALKBH5 transcription acted as a feedback loop regulating the m6A modifications in PC. CONCLUSION:ALKBH5 serves as a PC suppressor by regulating the posttranscriptional activation of PER1 through m6A abolishment, which may highlight a demethylation-based approach for PC diagnosis and therapy.
Project description:N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent internal modification in mammalian mRNAs. Although m6A is important in many biological processes, its roles in the placenta are unclear. Methods: Levels of global mRNA m6A methylation and ALKBH5 expression in recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), m6A RNA methylation quantification, and immunohistochemical methods. Using ALKBH5 overexpression and knockdown methods, we determined the role of ALKBH5 in trophoblast invasion at the maternal interface through trophoblasts and an extravillous explant culture experiments. Furthermore, the regulation of CYR61 by ALKBH5 was explored by RNA-sequencing coupled with methylated RNA immunoprecipitation. Results: We found that the level of global mRNA m6A methylation was significantly decreased in placental villous tissue from RM patients, while ALKBH5 expression was specifically unregulated. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ALKBH5 knockdown in human trophoblast promoted trophoblast invasion. Conversely, overexpression of ALKBH5 inhibited cell invasion. ALKBH5 knockdown promoted trophoblast invasion in villous explant culture experiments, while overexpression of ALKBH5 repressed these effects. Furthermore, we clarified that ALKBH5 inhibited trophoblast invasion by regulating CYR61 mRNA stability, and this RNA regulation is m6A dependent. Mechanistic analyses showed that decreased ALKBH5 in trophoblast increased the half-life of CYR61 mRNA and promoted steady-state CYR61 mRNA expression levels. Conclusions: We elucidated the functional roles of ALKBH5 and mRNA m6A methylation in trophoblast and identified a novel RNA regulatory mechanism, providing a basis for further exploration of broad RNA epigenetic regulatory patterns in RM diseases.
Project description:The dynamic and reversible N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification installed and erased by N6-methyltransferases and demethylases regulates gene expression and cell fate. We show that the m6A demethylase ALKBH5 is highly expressed in glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). Silencing ALKBH5 suppresses the proliferation of patient-derived GSCs. Integrated transcriptome and m6A-seq analyses revealed altered expression of certain ALKBH5 target genes, including the transcription factor FOXM1. ALKBH5 demethylates FOXM1 nascent transcripts, leading to enhanced FOXM1 expression. Furthermore, a long non-coding RNA antisense to FOXM1 (FOXM1-AS) promotes the interaction of ALKBH5 with FOXM1 nascent transcripts. Depleting ALKBH5 and FOXM1-AS disrupted GSC tumorigenesis through the FOXM1 axis. Our work uncovers a critical function for ALKBH5 and provides insight into critical roles of m6A methylation in glioblastoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer with extremely poor diagnosis and prognosis, and chemo-resistance remains a major challenge. The dynamic and reversible N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification has emerged as a new layer of epigenetic gene regulation. METHODS:qRT-PCR and IHC were applied to examine ALKBH5 levels in normal and pancreatic cancer tissues. Cancer cell proliferation and chemo-resistance were evaluated by clonogenic formation, chemosensitivity detection, and Western blotting assays. m6A-seq was performed to identify target genes. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of ALKBH5 in both in vivo and in vitro models. RESULTS:Here, we show that m6A demethylase ALKBH5 is downregulated in gemcitabine-treated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model and its overexpression sensitized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells to chemotherapy. Decreased ALKBH5 levels predicts poor clinical outcome in PDAC and multiple other cancers. Furthermore, silencing ALKBH5 remarkably increases PDAC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion both in vitro and in vivo, whereas its overexpression causes the opposite effects. Global m6A profile revealed altered expression of certain ALKBH5 target genes, including Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF-1), which is correlated with WIF-1 transactivation and mediation of the Wnt pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Our work uncovers the tumor suppressive and chemo-sensitizing function for ALKBH5, which provides insight into critical roles of m6A methylation in PDAC.
Project description:ALKBH5 is the RNA N(6)-methyladenosine (m6A) demethylase. To under sthand the function and mechnism of ALKBH5 in human acute myeloid leukemia, we compared the m6A profiling in wild-type, ALKBH5-knock-down, and ALKBH5 rescue THP1 cells. Overall design: RNA-seq in wild-type or ALKBH5 knock-down, or ALKBH5 rescue THP1 cells