Project description:As soil and soilless culture systems are highly dynamic environments, the structure of rhizosphere microbial communities is consistently adapting. There is a knowledge gap between the microbial community structure of soil based and soilless culture systems and thus we aimed at surveying their impact on diversity and composition of bacterial communities across a 10-month period in a tomato cultivation system. We compared community metrics between an soil based culture system fertilized with malt sprouts and blood meal, known for its slow and high mineralization rate, respectively and a soilless culture system fertilized with fish effluent or supplemented with an liquid organic fertilizer. Bacterial and fungal community composition was followed over time using two complementary techniques, phospholipid fatty acid analysis and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Nitrogen dynamics and plant performance were assessed to provide insight on how bacterial diversity of soil and soilless microbial communities ultimately impacts productivity. Similar plant performance was observed in soilless culture systems and soil based system and yield was the highest with the aquaponics-derived fertilizer. Soil and soilless cultivating systems supplemented with different nitrogen-rich fertilizers differed on its characteristics throughout the experimental period. Fast-paced fluctuations in pH(H2O) and nutrient cycling processes were observed in growing medium. Physicochemical characteristics changed over time and interacted with bacterial community metrics. Multivariate analysis showed that plant length, pH, Flavisolibacter, phosphorus, chloride, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, electrical conductivity, nitrate, sulfate, and the bacterial genera Desulfotomaculum, Solirubrobacter, Dehalococcoides, Bythopirellula, Steroidobacter, Litorilinea, Nonomuraea were the most significant factors discriminating between natural soils supplemented with animal and plant by-products. Long-term fertilizer regimes significantly changed the PLFA fingerprints in both the soilless culture and soil based culture system. The use of these by-products in the soil was positively associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which may influence rhizosphere communities through root exudates and C translocation. Community structure was distinct and consistently different over time, despite the fertilizer supplementation. The fungal microbial community composition was less affected by pH, while the composition of the bacterial communities (Actinomycetes, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria) was closely defined by soil pH, demonstrating the significance of pH as driver of bacterial community composition. Fertilizer application may be responsible for variations over time in the ecosystem. Knowledge about the microbial interactions in tomato cultivating systems opens a window of opportunity for designing targeted fertilizers supporting sustainable crop production.
Project description:This study examined fungal diversity and composition in conventional (CM) and desert farming (DE) systems in Oman. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of tomato was assessed using 454-pyrosequencing and culture-based techniques. Both techniques produced variable results in terms of fungal diversity, with 25% of the fungal classes shared between the two techniques. In addition, pyrosequencing recovered more taxa compared to direct plating. These findings could be attributed to the ability of pyrosequencing to recover taxa that cannot grow or are slow growing on culture media. Both techniques showed that fungal diversity in the conventional farm was comparable to that in the desert farm. However, the composition of fungal classes and taxa in the two farming systems were different. Pyrosequencing revealed that Microsporidetes and Dothideomycetes are the two most common fungal classes in CM and DE, respectively. However, the culture-based technique revealed that Eurotiomycetes was the most abundant class in both farming systems and some classes, such as Microsporidetes, were not detected by the culture-based technique. Although some plant pathogens (e.g., Pythium or Fusarium) were detected in the rhizosphere of tomato, the majority of fungal species in the rhizosphere of tomato were saprophytes. Our study shows that the cultivation system may have an impact on fungal diversity. The factors which affected fungal diversity in both farms are discussed.
Project description:Different fertilization regimes can substantially influence soil fungal community composition, yet fewer studies try to control for the effects of nitrogen input. Here, we investigated the impact of fertilization with equal nitrogen upon soil properties and soil fungal diversity and community composition in the North China Plain in a long-term field experiment. Long-term (32 years) fertilization regimes were applied with equal amounts of nitrogen: no chemical fertilizer or organic manure; chemical fertilization only; organic manure fertilization only, and; combination of 1/2 chemical fertilizer and 1/2 organic manure. Then we investigated the influence of these four fertilization regimes to soil properties, fungal diversity and community composition. The results showed that applying organic manure significantly influenced soil properties. Illumina MiSeq sequencing and its analysis revealed that organic manure fertilization significantly changed soil fungal alpha diversity, but chemical fertilization did not. Although soil fungal community composition did not differ significantly among all the fertilization regimes at the phylum and class levels, they did show differences in the abundance of dominant fungi. Yet at the genus level, soil fungal community composition, abundance, and beta diversity was affected by all fertilization regimes. Application of organic manure also reduced the abundance of soil-born fungal pathogens such as Fusarium. Our results suggest that long-term application of organic manure could markedly improve soil properties, altering soil fungal community composition and its diversity. Moreover, organic manure fertilization could limit soil-born fungal diseases, to further contribute to soil ecosystem sustainability.
Project description:Tomato (<i>Solanum lycopersicum</i>) is an important economic crop worldwide. However, tomato production is jeopardized by the devastating tomato yellow leaf curl disease caused by whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses (WTBs). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of our previously developed plant antiviral immunity inducer, fungal F8-culture filtrate, on tomato to combat tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV), the predominant WTB in Taiwan. Our results indicated that F8-culture filtrate treatment induced strong resistance, did not reduce the growth of tomato, and induced prominent resistance against TYLCTHV both in the greenhouse and in the field. Among TYLCTHV-inoculated Yu-Nu tomato grown in the greenhouse, a greater percentage of plants treated with F8-culture filtrate (43-100%) were healthy-looking compared to the H<sub>2</sub>O control (0-14%). We found that TYLCTHV cannot move systemically only on the F8-culture filtrate pretreated healthy-looking plants. Tracking the expression of phytohormone-mediated immune maker genes revealed that F8-culture filtrate mainly induced salicylic acid-mediated plant immunity. Furthermore, callose depositions and the expression of the pathogen-induced callose synthase gene, <i>POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4</i> were only strongly induced by TYLCTHV on tomato pretreated with F8-culture filtrate. This study provides an effective way to induce tomato resistance against TYLCTHV.
Project description:Accurate prediction of metabolism is a significant outstanding challenge in toxicology. The best predictions are based on experimental data from <i>in vitro</i> systems using primary hepatocytes. The predictivity of the primary hepatocyte-based culture systems, however, is still limited due to well-known phenotypic instability and rapid decline of metabolic competence within a few hours. Dynamic flow bioreactors for three-dimensional cell cultures are thought to be better at recapitulating tissue microenvironments and show potential to improve <i>in vivo</i> extrapolations of chemical or drug toxicity based on <i>in vitro</i> test results. These more physiologically relevant culture systems hold potential for extending metabolic competence of primary hepatocyte cultures as well. In this investigation, we used computational fluid dynamics to determine the optimal design of a flow-based hepatocyte culture system for evaluating chemical metabolism <i>in vitro</i>. The main design goals were (1) minimization of shear stress experienced by the cells to maximize viability, (2) rapid establishment of a uniform distribution of test compound in the chamber, and (3) delivery of sufficient oxygen to cells to support aerobic respiration. Two commercially available flow devices - RealBio<sup>®</sup> and QuasiVivo<sup>®</sup> (QV) - and a custom developed fluidized bed bioreactor were simulated, and turbulence, flow characteristics, test compound distribution, oxygen distribution, and cellular oxygen consumption were analyzed. Experimental results from the bioreactors were used to validate the simulation results. Our results indicate that maintaining adequate oxygen supply is the most important factor to the long-term viability of liver bioreactor cultures. Cell density and system flow patterns were the major determinants of local oxygen concentrations. The experimental results closely corresponded to the <i>in silico</i> predictions. Of the three bioreactors examined in this study, we were able to optimize the experimental conditions for long-term hepatocyte cell culture using the QV bioreactor. This system facilitated the use of low system volumes coupled with higher flow rates. This design supports cellular respiration by increasing oxygen concentrations in the vicinity of the cells and facilitates long-term kinetic studies of low clearance test compounds. These two goals were achieved while simultaneously keeping the shear stress experienced by the cells within acceptable limits.
Project description:Patient-derived 3D cell culture systems are currently advancing cancer research since they potentiate the molecular analysis of tissue-like properties and drug response under well-defined conditions. However, our understanding of the relationship between the heterogeneity of morphological phenotypes and the underlying transcriptome is still limited. To address this issue, we here introduce "pheno-seq" to directly link visual features of 3D cell culture systems with profiling their transcriptome. As prototypic applications breast and colorectal cancer (CRC) spheroids were analyzed by pheno-seq. We identified characteristic gene expression signatures of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that are associated with invasive growth behavior of clonal breast cancer spheroids. Furthermore, we linked long-term proliferative capacity in a patient-derived model of CRC to a lowly abundant PROX1-positive cancer stem cell subtype. We anticipate that the ability to integrate transcriptome analysis and morphological patho-phenotypes of cancer cells will provide novel insight on the molecular origins of intratumor heterogeneity.
Project description:In this study, the effect of mineral fertilizer and organic manure were evaluated on soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity, bacterial and fungal community structure in a long-term (33 years) field experiment. Except for the mineral nitrogen fertilizer (N) treatment, long-term fertilization greatly increased soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and dehydrogenase activity. Organic manure had a significantly greater impact on SMBC and dehydrogenase activity, compared with mineral fertilizers. Bacterial and fungal community structure was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Long-term fertilization increased bacterial and fungal ribotype diversity. Total soil nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP), soil organic carbon (SOC) and available phosphorus (AP) had a similar level of influence on bacterial ribotypes while TN, SOC and AP had a larger influence than alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (AHN) on fungal ribotypes. Our results suggested that long-term P-deficiency fertilization can significantly decrease soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activity and bacterial diversity. N-fertilizer and SOC have an important influence on bacterial and fungal communities.
Project description:The most distinguishing genetic feature of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is its remarkable diversity and variation. To understand this feature, we previously performed genetic analysis of HCV in the long-term culture of human hepatoma HuH-7-derived HCV RNA-replicating cell lines. On the other hand, we newly established HCV RNA-replicating cell lines using human hepatoma Li23 cells, which were distinct from HuH-7 cells.Li23-derived HCV RNA-replicating cells were cultured for 4 years. We performed genetic analysis of HCVs recovered from these cells at 0, 2, and 4 years in culture. Most analysis was performed in two separate parts: one part covered from the 5'-terminus to NS2, which is mostly nonessential for RNA replication, and the other part covered from NS3 to NS5B, which is essential for RNA replication. Genetic mutations in both regions accumulated in a time-dependent manner, and the mutation rates in the 5'-terminus-NS2 and NS3-NS5B regions were 4.0-9.0×10(-3) and 2.7-4.0×10(-3) base substitutions/site/year, respectively. These results suggest that the variation in the NS3-NS5B regions is affected by the pressure of RNA replication. Several in-frame deletions (3-105 nucleotides) were detected in the structural regions of HCV RNAs obtained from 2-year or 4-year cultured cells. Phylogenetic tree analyses clearly showed that the genetic diversity of HCV was expanded in a time-dependent manner. The GC content of HCV RNA was significantly increased in a time-dependent manner, as previously observed in HuH-7-derived cell systems. This phenomenon was partially due to the alterations in codon usages for codon optimization in human cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these long-term cultured cells were useful as a source for the selection of HCV clones showing resistance to anti-HCV agents.Long-term cultured HCV RNA-replicating cells are useful for the analysis of evolutionary dynamics and variations of HCV and for drug-resistance analysis.
Project description:Inorganic fertilization and mowing alter soil factors with subsequent effects-direct and indirect - on above- and below-ground communities. We explored direct and indirect effects of long-term fertilization (N, P, NPK, Liming) and twice yearly mowing on the plant, bacterial and fungal communities and soil factors. We analyzed co-variation using 16S and 18S rRNA genes surveys, and plant frequency and edaphic factors across treatments. The plant and fungal communities were distinct in the NPK and L treatments, while the bacterial communities and soil factors were distinct in the N and L treatments. Plant community diversity and evenness had low diversity in the NPK and high diversity in the liming treatment, while the diversity and evenness of the bacterial and fungal communities did not differ across treatments, except of higher diversity and evenness in the liming treatment for the bacteria. We found significant co-structures between communities based on plant and fungal comparisons but not between plant and bacterial nor bacterial and fungal comparisons. Our results suggested that the plant and fungal communities are more tightly linked than either community with the bacterial community in fertilized soils. We found co-varying plant, bacterial and fungal taxa in different treatments that may indicate ecological interactions.