Project description:Acetate production from food waste or sewage sludge was evaluated in four semi-continuous anaerobic digestion processes. To examine the importance of inoculum and substrate for acid production, two different inoculum sources (a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a co-digestion plant treating food and industry waste) and two common substrates (sewage sludge and food waste) were used in process operations. The processes were evaluated with regard to the efficiency of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis and the microbial community structure was determined. Feeding sewage sludge led to mixed acid fermentation and low total acid yield, whereas feeding food waste resulted in the production of high acetate and lactate yields. Inoculum from WWTP with sewage sludge substrate resulted in maintained methane production, despite a low hydraulic retention time. For food waste, the process using inoculum from WWTP produced high levels of lactate (30 g/L) and acetate (10 g/L), while the process initiated with inoculum from the co-digestion plant had higher acetate (25 g/L) and lower lactate (15 g/L) levels. The microbial communities developed during acid production consisted of the major genera Lactobacillus (92-100%) with food waste substrate, and Roseburia (44-45%) and Fastidiosipila (16-36%) with sewage sludge substrate. Use of the outgoing material (hydrolysates) in a biogas production system resulted in a non-significant increase in bio-methane production (+5-20%) compared with direct biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge.
Project description:A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion (AD) consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin) on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage. As initial inocula for AD of maize silage the samples from: (i) an agricultural biogas plant (ABP) which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii) cattle slurry (CS), which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii) raw sewage sludge (RSS) with low content of plant origin materials were used. The adaptation of methanogenic consortia was monitored during a series of passages, and the functionality of the adapted consortia was verified through start-up operation of AD in two-stage reactors. During the first stages of the adaptation phase, methanogenic consortia occurred very slowly, and only after several passages did the microbial community adapts to allow production of biogas with high methane content. The ABP consortium revealed highest biogas production in the adaptation and in the start-up process. The biodiversity dynamics monitored during adaptation and start-up process showed that community profile changed in a similar direction in three studied consortia. Native communities were very distinct to each other, while at the end of the Phase II of the start-up process microbial diversity profile was similar in all consortia. All adopted bacterial communities were dominated by representatives of Porphyromonadaceae, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Synergistaceae. A shift from low acetate-preferring acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae (ABP and RSS) and/or hydrogenotrophic Archaea, e.g., Methanomicrobiaceae (CS) prevailing in the inoculum samples to larger populations of high acetate-preferring acetoclastic Methanosarcinaceae was observed by the end of the experiment. As a result, three independent, functional communities that syntrophically produced methane from acetate (primarily) and H2/CO2, methanol and methylamines were adapted. This study provides new insights into the specific process by which different inocula sampled from typical methanogenic environments that are commonly used to initiate industrial installations gradually adapted to allow biogas production from maize silage.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widespread microbial technology used to treat organic waste and recover energy in the form of methane ("biogas"). While most AD systems have been designed to treat a single input, mixtures of digester sludge and solid organic waste are emerging as a means to improve efficiency and methane yield. We examined laboratory anaerobic cultures of AD sludge from two sources amended with food waste, xylose, and xylan at mesophilic temperatures, and with cellulose at meso- and thermophilic temperatures, to determine whether and how the inoculum and substrate affect biogas yield and community composition. All substrate and inoculum combinations yielded methane, with food waste most productive by mass. Pyrosequencing of transcribed bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA showed that community composition varied across substrates and inocula, with differing ratios of hydrogenotrophic/acetoclastic methanogenic archaea associated with syntrophic partners. While communities did not cluster by either inoculum or substrate, additional sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the source sludge revealed that the bacterial communities were influenced by their inoculum. These results suggest that complete and efficient AD systems could potentially be assembled from different microbial inocula and consist of taxonomically diverse communities that nevertheless perform similar functions.
Project description:Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing.In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides, Sporanaerobacter, Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pseudoramibacter_Eubacterium, Dysgonomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels.The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.
Project description:In this study, we used a multifaceted approach to select robust bioaugmentation candidates for enhancing biogas production and to demonstrate the usefulness of a genome-centric approach for strain selection for specific bioaugmentation purposes. We also investigated the influence of the isolation source of bacterial strains on their metabolic potential and their efficiency in enhancing anaerobic digestion. Whole genome sequencing, metabolic pathway reconstruction, and physiological analyses, including phenomics, of phylogenetically diverse strains, Rummeliibacillus sp. POC4, Ochrobactrum sp. POC9 (both isolated from sewage sludge) and Brevundimonas sp. LPMIX5 (isolated from an agricultural biogas plant) showed their diverse enzymatic activities, metabolic versatility and ability to survive under varied growth conditions. All tested strains display proteolytic, lipolytic, cellulolytic, amylolytic, and xylanolytic activities and are able to utilize a wide array of single carbon and energy sources, as well as more complex industrial by-products, such as dairy waste and molasses. The specific enzymatic activity expressed by the three strains studied was related to the type of substrate present in the original isolation source. Bioaugmentation with sewage sludge isolates-POC4 and POC9-was more effective for enhancing biogas production from sewage sludge (22% and 28%, respectively) than an approach based on LPMIX5 strain (biogas production boosted by 7%) that had been isolated from an agricultural biogas plant, where other type of substrate is used.
Project description:The dataset reported in this article provides quantitative data on anaerobic digestion of cattle manure, source separated organics (SSO), primary sludge (PS), and thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) using different inoculum sources. The discussion and interpretation of the data are provided in another publication entitled "Comparison of liquid and dewatered digestate as inoculum for anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes" . The data presented in this article include 1) the gas chromatography (GC) procedure of determining the biogas composition, 2) the procedure of converting the daily biogas/methane production data from the experimental condition (mesophilic temperature of 38 °C and room pressure) to the standard temperature (0 °C) and pressure (1 atm) condition, 3) the specific methanogenic activity data, and 4) the methane daily production rate data, and 5) the organics biodegradation kinetic rates.
Project description:Environmental pressures caused by population growth and consumerism require the development of resource recovery from waste, hence a circular economy approach. The production of chemicals and fuels from organic waste using mixed microbial cultures (MMC) has become promising. MMC use the synergy of bio-catalytic activities from different microorganisms to transform complex organic feedstock, such as by-products from food production and food waste. In the absence of oxygen, the feedstock can be converted into biogas through the established anaerobic digestion (AD) approach. The potential of MMC has shifted to production of intermediate AD compounds as precursors for renewable chemicals. A particular set of anaerobic pathways in MMC fermentation, known as chain elongation, can occur under specific conditions producing medium chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs) with higher value than biogas and broader applicability. This review introduces the chain elongation pathway and other bio-reactions occurring during MMC fermentation. We present an overview of the complex feedstocks used, and pinpoint the main operational parameters for MCCAs production such as temperature, pH, loading rates, inoculum, head space composition, and reactor design. The review evaluates the key findings of MCCA production using MMC, and concludes by identifying critical research targets to drive forward this promising technology as a valorisation method for complex organic waste.
Project description:Biogas is a renewable energy source composed of methane, carbon dioxide, and other trace compounds produced from anaerobic digestion of organic matter. A variety of feedstocks can be combined with different digestion techniques that each yields biogas with different trace compositions. California is expanding biogas production systems to help meet greenhouse gas reduction goals. Here, we report the composition of six California biogas streams from three different feedstocks (dairy manure, food waste, and municipal solid waste). The chemical and biological composition of raw biogas is reported, and the toxicity of combusted biogas is tested under fresh and photochemically aged conditions. Results show that municipal waste biogas contained elevated levels of chemicals associated with volatile chemical products such as aromatic hydrocarbons, siloxanes, and certain halogenated hydrocarbons. Food waste biogas contained elevated levels of sulfur-containing compounds including hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, and sulfur dioxide. Biogas produced from dairy manure generally had lower concentrations of trace chemicals, but the combustion products had slightly higher toxicity response compared to the other feedstocks. Atmospheric aging performed in a photochemical smog chamber did not strongly change the toxicity (oxidative capacity or mutagenicity) of biogas combustion exhaust.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste substrates, and renewable biomass and crop residues offers a means to generate energy-rich biogas. However, at present, AD-derived biogas is primarily flared or used for combined heat and power (CHP), in part due to inefficient gas-to-liquid conversion technologies. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of utilizing methane as a sole carbon and energy source, offering promising potential for biological gas-to-liquid conversion of AD-derived biogas. Here, we report cultivation of three phylogenetically diverse methanotrophic bacteria on biogas streams derived from AD of a series of energy crop residues. Strains maintained comparable central metabolic activity and displayed minimal growth inhibition when cultivated under batch configuration on AD biogas streams relative to pure methane, although metabolite analysis suggested biogas streams increase cellular oxidative stress. In contrast to batch cultivation, growth arrest was observed under continuous cultivation configuration, concurrent with increased biosynthesis and excretion of lactate. We examined the potential for enhanced lactate production via the employ of a pyruvate dehydrogenase mutant strain, ultimately achieving 0.027 g lactate/g DCW/h, the highest reported lactate specific productivity from biogas to date.
Project description:Background:Waste lipids are attractive substrates for co-digestion with primary and activated sewage sludge (PASS) to improve biogas production at wastewater treatment plants. However, slow conversion rates of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), produced during anaerobic digestion (AD), limit the applicability of waste lipids as co-substrates for PASS. Previous observations indicate that the sulfide level in PASS digesters affects the capacity of microbial communities to convert LCFA to biogas. This study assessed the microbial community response to LCFA loads in relation to sulfide level during AD of PASS by investigating process performance and microbial community dynamics upon addition of oleate (C18:1) and stearate (C18:0) to PASS digesters at ambient and elevated sulfide levels. Results:Conversion of LCFA to biogas was limited (30% of theoretical biogas potential) during continuous co-digestion with PASS, which resulted in further LCFA accumulation. However, the accumulated LCFA were converted to biogas (up to 66% of theoretical biogas potential) during subsequent batch-mode digestion, performed without additional substrate load. Elevated sulfide level stimulated oleate (but not stearate) conversion to acetate, but oleate and sulfide imposed a synergistic limiting effect on acetoclastic methanogenesis and biogas formation. Next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of bacteria and archaea showed that differences in sulfide level and LCFA type resulted in microbial community alterations with distinctly different patterns. Taxonomic profiling of the sequencing data revealed that the phylum Cloacimonetes is likely a key group during LCFA degradation in PASS digesters, where different members take part in degradation of saturated and unsaturated LCFA; genus W5 (family Cloacimonadaceae) and family W27 (order Cloacimonadales), respectively. In addition, LCFA-degrading Syntrophomonas, which is commonly present in lipid-fed digesters, increased in relative abundance after addition of oleate at elevated sulfide level, but not without sulfide or after stearate addition. Stearate conversion to biogas was instead associated with increasing abundance of hydrogen-producing Smithella and hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium. Conclusions:Long-chain fatty acid chain saturation and sulfide level are selective drivers for establishment of LCFA-degrading microbial communities in municipal sludge digesters.