Project description:Interferons (IFNs) play central roles in establishing innate immunity and mediating adaptive immunity against multiple pathogens. Three known types of IFNs identify their cognate receptors, initiate cascades of signalling events and eventually result in the induction of a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs perform a multitude of functions and cumulatively corroborate a bespoke antiviral state to safeguard hosts against invading viruses. Owing to the unique nature of a chicken's immune system and the lack of foundational profiling information on the nature and dynamic expression of IFN-specific ISGs at the genome scale, we performed a systematic and extensive analysis of type I, II and III IFN-induced genes in chicken. Employing pan-IFN responsive chicken fibroblasts coupled with transcriptomics, we observed an over-representation of up-regulated ISGs compared to down-regulated ISGs by all types of IFNs. Intriguingly, prediction of IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and gamma-IFN activation sequence (GAS) revealed a substantial number of GAS motifs in selective and significantly induced ISGs in chicken. Extensive comparative, genome-wide and differential expression analysis of ISGs under equivalent signalling input catalogue a set of genes that were either IFN-specific or independent of types of IFNs used to prime fibroblasts. These comprehensive datasets, first of their kinds in chicken, will establish foundations to elucidate the mechanisms of actions and breadth of antiviral action of ISGs, which may propose alternative avenues for targeted antiviral therapy against viruses of poultry of public health importance.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects mucosal epithelial cells and establishes lifelong infections in sensory neurons. Following reactivation, the virus is transferred anterograde to the initial site of infection or to sites innervated by infected neurons, causing vesicular lesions. Upon immunosuppression, frequent HSV-1 reactivation can cause severe diseases, such as blindness and encephalitis. Autophagy is a process whereby cell components are recycled, but it also serves as a defense mechanism against pathogens. HSV-1 is known to combat autophagy through the functions of the ?134.5 protein, which prevents formation of the autophagophore by binding to Beclin 1, a key factor involved in the elongation of the isolation membrane, and by redirecting the protein phosphatase 1? (PP1?) to dephosphorylate the translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) to prevent host translational shutoff. Other viral proteins that counteract innate immunity negatively impact autophagy. Here, we present a novel strategy of HSV-1 to evade the host through the downregulation of the autophagy adaptor protein sequestosome (p62/SQSTM1) and of the mitophagy adaptor optineurin (OPTN). This down-modulation occurs during the early steps of the infection. We also found that infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of the virus mediates the down-modulation of the two autophagy adaptors in a mechanism independent of its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Cells depleted of either p62 or OPTN were able to mount greater antiviral responses, whereas cells expressing exogenous p62 displayed decreased virus yields. We conclude that downregulation of p62/SQSTM1 and OPTN is a viral strategy to counteract the host.IMPORTANCE Autophagy is a homeostatic mechanism of cells to recycle components, as well as a defense mechanism to get rid of pathogens. Strategies that HSV-1 has developed to counteract autophagy have been described and involve inhibition of autophagosome formation or indirect mechanisms. Here, we present a novel mechanism that involves downregulation of two major autophagy adaptor proteins, sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1) and optineurin (OPTN). These findings generate the question of why the virus targets two major autophagy adaptors if it has mechanisms to block autophagosome formation. P62/SQSTM1 and OPTN proteins have pleiotropic functions, including regulation of innate immunity, inflammation, protein sorting, and chromatin remodeling. The decrease in virus yields in the presence of exogenous p62/SQSTM1 suggests that these adaptors have an antiviral function. Thus, HSV-1 may have developed multiple strategies to incapacitate autophagy to ensure replication. Alternatively, the virus may target another antiviral function of these proteins.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is the most important viral disease causing severe economic losses in the swine industry. However, mechanisms underlying gene expression control in immunity-responsible tissues at different time points during PRRSV infection are poorly understood. We constructed an integrated gene co-expression network and identified tissue- and time-dependent biological mechanisms of PRRSV infection through bioinformatics analysis using three tissues (lungs, bronchial lymph nodes [BLNs], and tonsils) via RNA-Seq. Three groups with specific expression patterns (i.e., the 3-dpi, lung, and BLN groups) were discovered. The 3 dpi-specific group showed antiviral and innate-immune signalling similar to the case for influenza A infection. Moreover, we observed adaptive immune responses in the lung-specific group based on various cytokines, while the BLN-specific group showed down-regulated AMPK signalling related to viral replication. Our study may provide comprehensive insights into PRRSV infection, as well as useful information for vaccine development.
Project description:Recurrence of cytomegalovirus reactivation remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Monitoring cytomegalovirus-specific cellular immunity using a standardized assay might improve the risk stratification of patients. A prospective multicenter study was conducted in 175 intermediate- and high-risk allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients under preemptive antiviral therapy. Cytomegalovirus-specific cellular immunity was measured using a standardized IFN-? ELISpot assay (T-Track® CMV). Primary aim was to evaluate the suitability of measuring cytomegalovirus-specific immunity after end of treatment for a first cytomegalovirus reactivation to predict recurrent reactivation. 40/101 (39.6%) patients with a first cytomegalovirus reactivation experienced recurrent reactivations, mainly in the high-risk group (cytomegalovirus-seronegative donor/cytomegalovirus-seropositive recipient). The positive predictive value of T-Track® CMV (patients with a negative test after the first reactivation experienced at least one recurrent reactivation) was 84.2% in high-risk patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher probability of recurrent cytomegalovirus reactivation in high-risk patients with a negative test after the first reactivation (hazard ratio 2.73; p=0.007). Interestingly, a post-hoc analysis considering T-Track® CMV measurements at day 100 post-transplantation, a time point highly relevant for outpatient care, showed a positive predictive value of 90.0% in high-risk patients. Our results indicate that standardized cytomegalovirus-specific cellular immunity monitoring may allow improved risk stratification and management of recurrent cytomegalovirus reactivation after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02156479.
Project description:EBV-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) is characterized by high frequency of DNA methylation. In this study, we investigated how epigenetic alteration of host genome contributes to pathogenesis of EBVaGC through the analysis of transcriptomic and epigenomic datasets from NIH TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) consortium. We identified that immune related genes (IRGs) is a group of host genes preferentially silenced in EBV-positive gastric cancers through DNA hypermethylation. Further functional characterizations of selected IRGs reveal their novel antiviral activity against not only EBV but also KSHV. In particular, we showed that metallothionein-1 (MT1) and homeobox A (HOXA) gene clusters are down-regulated via EBV-driven DNA hypermethylation. Several MT1 isoforms suppress EBV lytic replication and release of progeny virions as well as KSHV lytic reactivation, suggesting functional redundancy of these genes. In addition, single HOXA10 isoform exerts antiviral activity against both EBV and KSHV. We also confirmed the antiviral effect of other dysregulated IRGs, such as IRAK2 and MAL, in scenario of EBV and KSHV lytic reactivation. Collectively, our results demonstrated that epigenetic silencing of IRGs is a viral strategy to escape immune surveillance and promote viral propagation, which is overall beneficial to viral oncogenesis of human gamma-herpesviruses (EBV and KSHV), considering that these IRGs possess antiviral activities against these oncoviruses.
Project description:Type 1 interferon (IFN) plays a critical role in early antiviral defense and priming of adaptive immunity by signaling upregulation of host antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Certain stimuli trigger strong activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and direct upregulation of ISGs in addition to IFN. It remains unclear why some stimuli are stronger activators of IRF3 and how this leads to IFN-independent antiviral protection. We found that UV-inactivated human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) particles triggered an IFN-independent ISG signature that was absent in cells infected with UV-inactivated Sendai virus particles. HCMV particles triggered mostly uniform activation of IRF3 and low-level IFN-<i>?</i> production within the population while SeV particles triggered a small fraction of cells producing abundant IFN-<i>?</i>. These findings suggest that population-level activation of IRF3 and antiviral protection emerges from a diversity of responses occurring simultaneously in single cells. Moreover, this occurs in the absence of virus replication.
Project description:Induction of adaptive immunity leads to the establishment of immunological memory; however, how innate immunity regulates memory T cell function remains obscure. Here we show a previously undefined mechanism in which innate and adaptive immunity are linked by TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing beta interferon (TRIF) during establishment and reactivation of memory T cells against Gram-negative enteropathogens. Absence of TRIF in macrophages (M?s) but not dendritic cells led to a predominant generation of CD4(+) central memory T cells that express IL-17 during enteric bacterial infection in mice. TRIF-dependent type I interferon (IFN) signaling in T cells was essential to Th1 lineage differentiation and reactivation of memory T cells. TRIF activated memory T cells to facilitate local neutrophil influx and enhance bacterial elimination. These results highlight the importance of TRIF as a mediator of the innate and adaptive immune interactions in achieving the protective properties of memory immunity against Gram-negative bacteria and suggest TRIF as a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:In the evolving immune-oncology landscape, numerous patients with cancer are constantly treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) but among them, only sporadic cases with pre-existing hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are recorded. Despite the global dissemination of HBV and HCV infections, viral hepatitis-infected patients with cancer were traditionally excluded from ICPIs containing trials and current evidence is particularly limited in case reports, retrospective cohort studies and in few clinical trials on advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, many concerns still remain about the overall oncological management of this special subpopulation, including questions about the efficacy, toxicity and reactivation risks induced by ICPIs. Here, we examine the natural course of both HBV and HCV in cancer environment, review the latest antiviral guidelines for patients undergoing systematic cancer therapies, estimating treatment-related immunosuppression and relocate immunotherapy in this therapeutic panel. Among the ICPIs-treated cases with prior viral hepatitis, we focus further on those experienced HBV or HCV reactivation and discuss their host, tumor and serological risk factors, their antiviral and immunological management as well as their hepatitis and tumor outcome. Based on a low level of evidence, immunotherapy in these specific cancer cases seems to be associated with no inferior efficacy and with a relevantly low reactivation rate. However, hepatitis reactivation and subsequent irreversible complications appeared to have poor response to deferred antiviral treatment. While, the prophylactic use of modern antiviral drugs could eliminate or diminish up front the viral load in most cases, leading to cure or long-term hepatitis control. Taking together the clinical significance of preventive therapy, the low but existing reactivation risk and the potential immune-related hepatotoxicity, a comprehensive baseline assessment of liver status, including viral hepatitis screening, before the onset of immunotherapy should be suggested as a reasonable and maybe cost-effective strategy but the decision to administer ICPIs and the necessity of prophylaxis should always be weighed at a multidisciplinary level and be individualized in each case, up to be established by future clinical trials.
Project description:Host antiviral genes are important regulators of antiviral immunity and plausible genetic determinants of immune response heterogeneity after vaccination. We genotyped and analyzed 307 common candidate tagSNPs from 12 antiviral genes in a cohort of 745 schoolchildren immunized with two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Associations between SNPs/haplotypes and measles virus-specific immune outcomes were assessed using linear regression methodologies in Caucasians and African-Americans. Genetic variants within the DDX58/RIG-I gene, including a coding polymorphism (rs3205166/Val800Val), were associated as single-SNPs (p?0.017; although these SNPs did not remain significant after correction for false discovery rate/FDR) and in haplotype-level analysis, with measles-specific antibody variations in Caucasians (haplotype allele p-value=0.021; haplotype global p-value=0.076). Four DDX58 polymorphisms, in high LD, demonstrated also associations (after correction for FDR) with variations in both measles-specific IFN-? and IL-2 secretion in Caucasians (p?0.001, q=0.193). Two intronic OAS1 polymorphisms, including the functional OAS1 SNP rs10774671 (p=0.003), demonstrated evidence of association with a significant allele-dose-related increase in neutralizing antibody levels in African-Americans. Genotype and haplotype-level associations demonstrated the role of ADAR genetic variants, including a non-synonymous SNP (rs2229857/Arg384Lys; p=0.01), in regulating measles virus-specific IFN-? Elispot responses in Caucasians (haplotype global p-value=0.017). After correction for FDR, 15 single-SNP associations (11 SNPs in Caucasians and 4 SNPs in African-Americans) still remained significant at the q-value<0.20. In conclusion, our findings strongly point to genetic variants/genes, involved in antiviral sensing and antiviral control, as critical determinants, differentially modulating the adaptive immune responses to live attenuated measles vaccine in Caucasians and African-Americans.
Project description:To study the dysregulated host immune response to infection in sepsis, gene expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets GSE54514, GSE57065, GSE64456, GSE95233, GSE66099 and GSE72829 were selected. From the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) immune system pathways, 998 unique genes were selected, and genes were classified as follows based on gene annotation from KEGG, Gene Ontology, and Reactome: adaptive immunity, antigen presentation, cytokines and chemokines, complement, hematopoiesis, innate immunity, leukocyte migration, NK cell activity, platelet activity, and signaling. After correlation matrix formation, correlation coefficient of 0.8 was selected for network generation and network analysis. Total transcriptome was analyzed for differentially expressed genes (DEG), followed by gene set enrichment analysis. The network topological structure revealed that adaptive immunity tended to form a prominent and isolated cluster in sepsis. Common genes within the cluster from the 6 datasets included CD247, CD8A, ITK, LAT, and LCK. The clustering coefficient and modularity parameters were increased in 5/6 and 4/6 datasets in the sepsis group that seemed to be associated with functional aspect of the network. GSE95233 revealed that the nonsurvivor group showed a prominent and isolated adaptive immunity cluster, whereas the survivor group had isolated complement-coagulation and platelet-related clusters. T cell receptor signaling (TCR) pathway and antigen processing and presentation pathway were down-regulated in 5/6 and 4/6 datasets, respectively. Complement and coagulation, Fc gamma, epsilon related signaling pathways were up-regulated in 5/6 datasets. Altogether, network and gene set enrichment analysis showed that adaptive-immunity-related genes along with TCR pathway were down-regulated and isolated from immune the network that seemed to be associated with unfavorable prognosis. Prominence of platelet and complement-coagulation-related genes in the immune network was associated with survival in sepsis. Complement-coagulation pathway was up-regulated in the sepsis group that was associated with favorable prognosis. Network and gene set enrichment analysis supported elucidation of sepsis pathogenesis.