Project description:Drought is the largest stress affecting agricultural crops, resulting in substantial reductions in yield. Plant adaptation to water stress is a complex trait involving changes in hormone signaling, physiology, and morphology. Sorghum (<i>Sorghum bicolor</i> (L.) Moench) is a C4 cereal grass; it is an agricultural staple, and it is particularly drought-tolerant. To better understand drought adaptation strategies, we compared the cytosolic- and organelle-enriched protein profiles of leaves from two <i>Sorghum bicolor</i> genotypes, RTx430 and BTx642, with differing preflowering drought tolerances after 8 weeks of growth under water limitation in the field. In agreement with previous findings, we observed significant drought-induced changes in the abundance of multiple heat shock proteins and dehydrins in both genotypes. Interestingly, our data suggest a larger genotype-specific drought response in protein profiles of organelles, while cytosolic responses are largely similar between genotypes. Organelle-enriched proteins whose abundance significantly changed exclusively in the preflowering drought-tolerant genotype RTx430 upon drought stress suggest multiple mechanisms of drought tolerance. These include an RTx430-specific change in proteins associated with ABA metabolism and signal transduction, Rubisco activation, reactive oxygen species scavenging, flowering time regulation, and epicuticular wax production. We discuss the current understanding of these processes in relation to drought tolerance and their potential implications.
Project description:This experiment contains the subset of data corresponding to sorghum RNA-Seq data from experiment E-GEOD-50464 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-GEOD-50464/), which goal is to examine the transcriptome of various Sorghum bicolor (BTx623) tissues: flowers, vegetative and floral meristems, embryos, roots and shoots. Thus, we expanded the existing transcriptome atlas for sorghum by conducting RNA-Seq analysis on meristematic tissues, florets, and embryos, and these data sets have been used to improve on the existing community structural annotations.
Project description:Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.
Project description:Despite a "ploidy barrier," interspecific crosses to wild and/or cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, 2n = 2x = 20) may have aided the spread across six continents of Sorghum halepense, also exemplifying risks of "transgene escape" from crops that could make weeds more difficult to control. Genetic maps of two BC1F1 populations derived from crosses of S. bicolor (sorghum) and S. halepense with totals of 722 and 795 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers span 37 and 35 linkage groups, with 2-6 for each of the 10 basic sorghum chromosomes due to fragments covering different chromosomal portions or independent segregation from different S. halepense homologs. Segregation distortion favored S. halepense alleles on chromosomes 2 (1.06-4.68 Mb, near a fertility restoration gene), 7 (1.20-6.16 Mb), 8 (1.81-5.33 Mb, associated with gene conversion), and 9 (47.5-50.1 Mb); and S. bicolor alleles on chromosome 6 (0-40 Mb), which contains both a large heterochromatin block and the Ma1 gene. Regions of the S. halepense genome that are recalcitrant to gene flow from sorghum might be exploited as part a multi-component system to reduce the likelihood of spread of transgenes or other modified genes. Its SNP profile suggests that chromosome segments from its respective progenitors S. bicolor and Sorghum propinquum have extensively recombined in S. halepense. This study reveals genomic regions that might discourage crop-to-weed gene escape, and provides a foundation for marker-trait association analysis to determine the genetic control of traits contributing to weediness, invasiveness, and perenniality of S. halepense.
Project description:This study utilized next generation sequencing technology (RNA-Seq) to examine the transcriptome of sorghum plants challenged with osmotic stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) to elucidate those genes and gene networks that contribute to sorghum's tolerance to water-limiting environments with a long-term aim of developing strategies to improve plant productivity under drought. We examined the mRNA of 9 day old Sorghum bicolor (BTx623) from 2 tissue types (roots and shoots) for 2 treatments (20 uM ABA and 20% PEG) with corresponding controls (0.2M NaOH and H2O) for 27 hrs prior to harvesting, each done in triplicate biological replicates - resulting in 24 unique runs
Project description:Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends (PARE) sequencing reads were generated to validate putative microRNAs and identify cleavage sites in Sorghum bicolor and Setaria viridis. Overall design: For Sorghum bicolor, a variety of conditions were used to generate total RNA, including leaf and three stages of anther development. For Setaria viridis, single replicates of leaf, panicle, and two stages of spikelets were sampled.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The important cereal crop Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench biosynthesize and accumulate the defensive compound dhurrin during development. Previous work has suggested multiple roles for the compound including a function as nitrogen storage/buffer. Crucial for this function is the endogenous turnover of dhurrin for which putative pathways have been suggested but not confirmed. RESULTS:In this study, the biosynthesis and endogenous turnover of dhurrin in the developing sorghum grain was studied by metabolite profiling and time-resolved transcriptome analyses. Dhurrin was found to accumulate in the early phase of grain development reaching maximum amounts 25 days after pollination. During the subsequent maturation period, the dhurrin content was turned over, resulting in only negligible residual dhurrin amounts in the mature grain. Dhurrin accumulation correlated with the transcript abundance of the three genes involved in biosynthesis. Despite the accumulation of dhurrin, the grains were acyanogenic as demonstrated by the lack of hydrogen cyanide release from macerated grain tissue and by the absence of transcripts encoding dhurrinases. With the missing activity of dhurrinases, the decrease in dhurrin content in the course of grain maturation represents the operation of hitherto uncharacterized endogenous dhurrin turnover pathways. Evidence for the operation of two such pathways was obtained by metabolite profiling and time-resolved transcriptome analysis. By combining cluster- and phylogenetic analyses with the metabolite profiling, potential gene candidates of glutathione S-transferases, nitrilases and glycosyl transferases involved in these pathways were identified. The absence of dhurrin in the mature grain was replaced by a high content of proanthocyanidins. Cluster- and phylogenetic analyses coupled with metabolite profiling, identified gene candidates involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in sorghum. CONCLUSIONS:The results presented in this article reveal the existence of two endogenous dhurrin turnover pathways in sorghum, identify genes putatively involved in these transformations and show that dhurrin in addition to its insect deterrent properties may serve as a storage form of reduced nitrogen. In the course of sorghum grain maturation, proanthocyanidins replace dhurrin as a defense compound. The lack of cyanogenesis in the developing sorghum grain renders this a unique experimental system to study CNglc synthesis as well as endogenous turnover.
Project description:Laccase is a key enzyme in plant lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the final step of monolignols polymerization. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is considered as an ideal feedstock for ethanol production, but lignin greatly limits the production efficiency. No comprehensive analysis on laccase has ever been conducted in S. bicolor, although it appears as the most promising target for engineering lignocellulosic feedstock. The aim of our work is to systematically characterize S. bicolor laccase gene family and to identify the lignin-specific candidates. A total of twenty-seven laccase candidates (SbLAC1-SbLAC27) were identified in S. bicolor. All SbLACs comprised the equivalent L1-L4 signature sequences and three typical Cu-oxidase domains, but exhibited diverse intron-exon patterns and relatively low sequence identity. They were divided into six groups by phylogenetic clustering, revealing potential distinct functions, while SbLAC5 was considered as the closest lignin-specific candidate. qRT-PCR analysis deciphered that SbLAC genes were expressed preferentially in roots and young internodes of sweet sorghum, and SbLAC5 showed high expression, adding the evidence that SbLAC5 was bona fide involved in lignin biosynthesis. Besides, high abundance of SbLAC6 transcripts was detected, correlating it a potential role in lignin biosynthesis. Diverse cis regulatory elements were recognized in SbLACs promoters, indicating putative interaction with transcription factors. Seven SbLACs were found to be potential targets of sbi-miRNAs. Moreover, putative phosphorylation sites in SbLAC sequences were identified. Our research adds to the knowledge for lignin profile modification in sweet sorghum.
Project description:Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is globally produced as a source of food, feed, fiber and fuel. Grain and sweet sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including stem sugar and juice accumulation, plant height as well as grain and biomass production. The first whole genome sequence of a grain sorghum is available, but additional genome sequences are required to study genome-wide and intraspecific variation for dissecting the genetic basis of these important traits and for tailor-designed breeding of this important C4 crop. RESULTS:We resequenced two sweet and one grain sorghum inbred lines, and identified a set of nearly 1,500 genes differentiating sweet and grain sorghum. These genes fall into ten major metabolic pathways involved in sugar and starch metabolisms, lignin and coumarin biosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, stress responses and DNA damage repair. In addition, we uncovered 1,057,018 SNPs, 99,948 indels of 1 to 10 bp in length and 16,487 presence/absence variations as well as 17,111 copy number variations. The majority of the large-effect SNPs, indels and presence/absence variations resided in the genes containing leucine rich repeats, PPR repeats and disease resistance R genes possessing diverse biological functions or under diversifying selection, but were absent in genes that are essential for life. CONCLUSIONS:This is a first report of the identification of genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sorghum. High-density SNP and indel markers reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and the molecular breeding of this important crop and related species.