Project description:Tomato powdery mildew, caused by Oidium neolycopersici, is a fungal disease that results in severe yield loss in infected plants. Herein, we describe the function of a class of proteins, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), which play a role in vesicle transport during defense signaling. To date, there have been no reports describing the function of tomato SNAREs during resistance signaling to powdery mildew. Using a combination of classical plant pathology-, genetics-, and cell biology-based approaches, we evaluate the role of ShNPSN11 in resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen O. neolycopersici. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of tomato SNAREs revealed that ShNPSN11 mRNA accumulation in disease-resistant varieties was significantly increased following pathogen, compared with susceptible varieties, suggesting a role during induced defense signaling. Using in planta subcellular localization, we demonstrate that ShNPSN11 was primarily localized at the plasma membrane, consistent with the localization of SNARE proteins and their role in defense signaling and trafficking. Silencing of ShNPSN11 resulted in increased susceptibility to O. neolycopersici, with pathogen-induced levels of H2O2 and cell death elicitation in ShNPSN11-silenced lines showing a marked reduction. Transient expression of ShNPSN11 did not result in the induction of a hypersensitive cell death response or suppress cell death induced by BAX. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ShNPSNl11 plays an important role in defense activation and host resistance to O. neolycopersici in tomato LA1777.
Project description:To screen for potentially novel types of resistance to tomato powdery mildew Oidium neolycopersici, a disease assay was performed on 123 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Forty accessions were fully resistant, and one, C24, was analysed in detail. By quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of an F2 population derived from C24 × Sha (susceptible accession), two QTLs associated with resistance were identified in C24. Fine mapping of QTL-1 on chromosome 1 delimited the region to an interval of 58?kb encompassing 15 candidate genes. One of these was Enhanced Disease Resistance 1 (EDR1). Evaluation of the previously obtained edr1 mutant of Arabidopsis accession Col-0, which was identified because of its resistance to powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, showed that it also displayed resistance to O.?neolycopersici. Sequencing of EDR1 in our C24 germplasm (referred to as C24-W) revealed two missing nucleotides in the second exon of EDR1 resulting in a premature stop codon. Remarkably, C24 obtained from other laboratories does not contain the EDR1 mutation. To verify the identity of C24-W, a DNA region containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) unique to C24 was sequenced showing that C24-W contains the C24-specific nucleotide. C24-W showed enhanced resistance to O.?neolycopersici compared with C24 not containing the edr1 mutation. Furthermore, C24-W displayed a dwarf phenotype, which was not associated with the mutation in EDR1 and was not caused by the differential accumulation of pathogenesis-related genes. In conclusion, we identified a natural edr1 mutant in the background of C24.
Project description:Current strategies for increased crop protection of susceptible tomato plants against pathogen infections include treatment with synthetic chemicals, application of natural pathogen-derived compounds or transfer of resistance genes from wild tomato species within breeding programmes. In this study, a series of 45 genes potentially involved in defence mechanisms was retrieved from the genome sequence of inbred reference tomato cultivar Solanum lycopersicum 'Heinz 1706'. The aim of the study was to analyse expression of these selected genes in wild and cultivated tomato plants contrasting in resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Oidium neolycopersici , the causative agent of powdery mildew. Plants were treated either solely with potential resistance inducers or by inducers together with the pathogen.The resistance against O. neolycopersici infection as well as RT-PCR-based analysis of gene expression in response to the oomycete elicitor oligandrin and chemical agent ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) were investigated in the highly susceptible domesticated inbred genotype Solanum lycopersicum 'Amateur' and resistant wild genotype Solanum habrochaites .Differences in basal expression levels of defensins, germins, ?-1,3-glucanases, heveins, chitinases, osmotins and PR1 proteins in non-infected and non-elicited plants were observed between the highly resistant and susceptible genotypes. Moreover, these defence genes showed an extensive up-regulation following O. neolycopersici infection in both genotypes. Application of BABA and elicitin induced expression of multiple defence-related transcripts and, through different mechanisms, enhanced resistance against powdery mildew in the susceptible tomato genotype.The results indicate that non-specific resistance in the resistant genotype S. habrochaites resulted from high basal levels of transcripts with proven roles in defence processes. In the susceptible genotype S. lycopersicum 'Amateur', oligandrin- and BABA-induced resistance involved different signalling pathways, with BABA-treated leaves displaying direct activation of the ethylene-dependent signalling pathway, in contrast to previously reported jasmonic acid-mediated signalling for elicitins.
Project description:Genetic dissection of disease susceptibility in Arabidopsis to powdery and downy mildew has identified multiple susceptibility (S) genes whose impairment results in disease resistance. Although several of these S-genes have been cloned and characterized in more detail it is unknown to which degree their function in disease susceptibility is conserved among different plant species. Moreover, it is unclear whether impairment of such genes has potential in disease resistance breeding due to possible fitness costs associated with impaired alleles. Here we show that the Arabidopsis PMR4 and DMR1, genes encoding a callose synthase and homoserine kinase respectively, have functional orthologs in tomato with respect to their S-gene function. Silencing of both genes using RNAi resulted in resistance to the tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici. Resistance to O. neolycopersici by SlDMR1 silencing was associated with severely reduced plant growth whereas SlPMR4 silencing was not. SlPMR4 is therefore a suitable candidate gene as target for mutagenesis to obtain alleles that can be deployed in disease resistance breeding of tomato.
Project description:Powdery mildews can be controlled by brief exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation with devastating effect on their developmental stages including conidia germination. The treatment effect can be impaired by subsequent exposure to UV-A/blue light. UV-A/blue light-activated photolyase may be responsible for this and therefore we tested the function of three cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF)-like genes (OINE01015670_T110144, OINE01000912_T103440, and OINE01005061_T102555) identified in the obligate biotrophic fungus Pseudoidium neolycopersici, the cause of tomato powdery mildew. A photolyase-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli transformed with coding sequence of OINE01000912_T103440 and exposed to brief (UV)-C treatment (peak emission at 254 nm) showed photoreactivation and cell survival when exposed to subsequent blue light, indicating complementation of photolyase activity. In contrast, the same photolyase-deficient E. coli transformed with the coding sequences of other two CPF-like genes did not survive this treatment, even though their expression were confirmed at protein level. This confirmed that OINE01000912_T103440 is a gene encoding photolyase, here named PnPHR1, with functionality similar to the native photolyase in E. coli, and classified as a class I cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase. Modeling of the 634-amino acid sequence of PnPHR1 suggested that it is capable of binding flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF). However, spectroscopic data of the protein produced in an E. coli expression system could only reveal the presence of a reduced form of FAD, i.e., FADH- as an intrinsic chromophore. Within the tested wavelength range of 365-525 nm, the survival of photolyase-deficient mutant E. coli transformed with PnPHR1 showed a broad action spectrum from 365 to 454 nm. This was very similar to the previously characterized action spectrum for survival of P. neolycopersici conidia that had been treated with UV-C. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression of PnPHR1 in P. neolycopersici conidia was induced by UV-C, and peak expression occurred 4 h after brief UV-C treatment. The expression of PnPHR1 was repressed when incubated in red light after the UV-C treatment, but not when incubated in UV-A/blue light. The results may explain why the disease-reducing effect of short wavelength UV is impaired by exposure to UV-A and blue light.
Project description:Specific members of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) protein family act as susceptibility factors towards powdery mildew (PM), a worldwide-spread fungal disease threatening many cultivated species. Previous studies indicated that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins are phylogenetically divergent.A bioinformatic approach was followed to study the type of evolution of Angiosperm MLO susceptibility proteins. Transgenic complementation tests were performed for functional analysis.Our results show that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins evolved class-specific conservation patterns. Many of them appear to be the result of negative selection and thus are likely to provide an adaptive value. We also tested whether different molecular features between monocot and dicot MLO proteins are specifically required by PM fungal species to cause pathogenesis. To this aim, we transformed a tomato mutant impaired for the endogenous SlMLO1 gene, and therefore resistant to the tomato PM species Oidium neolycopersici, with heterologous MLO susceptibility genes from the monocot barley and the dicot pea. In both cases, we observed restoration of PM symptoms. Finally, through histological observations, we demonstrate that both monocot and dicot susceptibility alleles of the MLO genes predispose to penetration of a non-adapted PM fungal species in plant epidermal cells.With this study, we provide insights on the evolution and function of MLO genes involved in the interaction with PM fungi. With respect to breeding research, we show that transgenic complementation assays involving phylogenetically distant plant species can be used for the characterization of novel MLO susceptibility genes. Moreover, we provide an overview of MLO protein molecular features predicted to play a major role in PM susceptibility. These represent ideal targets for future approaches of reverse genetics, addressed to the selection of loss-of-function resistant mutants in cultivated species.
Project description:Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In a cDNA-AFLP analysis comparing transcript levels between powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici)-susceptible tomato cultivar Moneymaker (MM) and near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying resistance gene Ol-1 or Ol-4, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) M11E69-195 was found to be present in NIL-Ol-1 but absent in MM and NIL-Ol-4. This TDF shows homology to acetolactate synthase (ALS). ALS is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine, and it is also a target of commercial herbicides. RESULTS: Three ALS homologs ALS1, ALS2, ALS3 were identified in the tomato genome sequence. ALS1 and ALS2 show high similarity, whereas ALS3 is more divergent. Transient silencing of both ALS1 and ALS2 in NIL-Ol-1 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) resulted in chlorotic leaf areas that showed increased susceptibility to O. neolycopersici (On). VIGS results were confirmed by stable transformation of NIL-Ol-1 using an RNAi construct targeting both ALS1 and ALS2. In contrast, silencing of the three ALS genes individually by RNAi constructs did not compromise the resistance of NIL-Ol-1. Application of the herbicide chlorsulfuron to NIL-Ol-1 mimicked the VIGS phenotype and caused loss of its resistance to On. Susceptible MM and On-resistant line NIL-Ol-4 carrying a nucleotide binding site and leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) resistance gene were also treated with chlorsulfuron. Neither the susceptibility of MM nor the resistance of NIL-Ol-4 was affected. CONCLUSIONS: ALS is neither involved in basal defense, nor in resistance conferred by NB-LRR type resistance genes. Instead, it is specifically involved in Ol-1-mediated resistance to tomato powdery mildew, suggesting that ALS-induced change in amino acid homeostasis is important for resistance conferred by Ol-1.
Project description:Plant immunity is often defined by the immunity hormones: salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). These hormones are well known for differentially regulating defence responses against pathogens. In recent years, the involvement of other plant growth hormones such as auxin, gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, and cytokinins (CKs) in biotic stresses has been recognized. Previous reports have indicated that endogenous and exogenous CK treatment can result in pathogen resistance. We show here that CK induces systemic immunity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), modulating cellular trafficking of the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) LeEIX2, which mediates immune responses to Xyn11 family xylanases, and promoting resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Oidium neolycopersici in an SA- and ET-dependent mechanism. CK perception within the host underlies its protective effect. Our results support the notion that CK promotes pathogen resistance by inducing immunity in the host.