Project description:The enterococcal surface protein, Esp, is a high-molecular-weight surface protein of unknown function whose frequency is significantly increased among infection-derived Enterococcus faecalis isolates. In this work, a global structural similarity was found between Bap, a biofilm-associated protein of Staphylococcus aureus, and Esp. Analysis of the relationship between the presence of the Esp-encoding gene (esp) and the biofilm formation capacity in E. faecalis demonstrated that the presence of the esp gene is highly associated (P < 0.0001) with the capacity of E. faecalis to form a biofilm on a polystyrene surface, since 93.5% of the E. faecalis esp-positive isolates were capable of forming a biofilm. Moreover, none of the E. faecalis esp-deficient isolates were biofilm producers. Depending on the E. faecalis isolate, insertional mutagenesis of esp caused either a complete loss of the biofilm formation phenotype or no apparent phenotypic defect. Complementation studies revealed that Esp expression in an E. faecalis esp-deficient strain promoted primary attachment and biofilm formation on polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride plastic from urine collection bags. Together, these results demonstrate that (i) biofilm formation capacity is widespread among clinical E. faecalis isolates, (ii) the biofilm formation capacity is restricted to the E. faecalis strains harboring esp, and (iii) Esp promotes primary attachment and biofilm formation of E. faecalis on abiotic surfaces.
Project description:Glycosidases are widespread among bacteria. The opportunistic human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis encodes several putative glycosidases but little is known about their functions. The identified endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase EndoE has activity on the N-linked glycans of the human immunoglobulin G (IgG). In this report we identified the human glycoprotein lactoferrin (hLF) as a new substrate for EndoE. Hydrolysis of the N-glycans from hLF was investigated using lectin blot, UHPLC and mass spectrometry, showing that EndoE releases major glycoforms from this protein. hLF was shown to inhibit biofilm formation of E. faecalis in vitro. Glycans of hLF influence the binding to E. faecalis, and EndoE-hydrolyzed hLF inhibits biofilm formation to lesser extent than intact hLF indicating that EndoE prevents the inhibition of biofilm. In addition, hLF binds to a surface-associated enolase of E. faecalis. Culture experiments showed that the activity of EndoE enables E. faecalis to use the glycans derived from lactoferrin as a carbon source indicating that they could be used as nutrients in vivo when no other preferred carbon source is available. This report adds important information about the enzymatic activity of EndoE from the commensal and opportunist E. faecalis. The activity on the human glycoprotein hLF, and the functional consequences with reduced inhibition of biofilm formation highlights both innate immunity functions of hLF and a bacterial mechanism to evade this innate immunity function. Taken together, our results underline the importance of glycans in the interplay between bacteria and the human host, with possible implications for both commensalism and opportunism.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the effects of radezolid and linezolid on planktonic and biofilm cells of Enterococcus faecalis. A total of 302 E. faecalis clinical isolates were collected, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of radezolid and linezolid were determined by the agar dilution method. Changes in the transcriptome of a high-level, in vitro-induced linezolid-resistant isolate were assessed by RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR, and the roles of efflux pump-related genes were confirmed by overexpression analysis. Biofilm biomass was evaluated by crystal violet staining and the adherent cells in the biofilms were quantified according to CFU numbers. The MIC50/MIC90 values of radezolid (0.25/0.50 mg/L) against the 302 E. faecalis clinical isolates were eightfold lower than those of linezolid (2/4 mg/L). The radezolid MICs against the high-level linezolid-resistant isolates (linezolid MICs ? 64 mg/L) increased to ? 4 mg/L with mutations in the four copies of the V domain of the 23S rRNA gene. The mRNA expression level of OG1RF_12220 (mdlB2, multidrug ABC superfamily ATP-binding cassette transporter) increased in the high-level linezolid-resistant isolates, and radezolid and linezolid MICs against the linezolid-sensitive isolate increased with overexpression of OG1RF_12220. Radezolid (at 1/4 or 1/8× the MIC) inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation to a greater extent than linezolid, which was primarily achieved through the inhibition of ahrC, esp, relA, and relQ transcription in E. faecalis. In conclusion, radezolid is more effective than linezolid against planktonic E. faecalis cells and inhibits biofilm formation by this bacterium.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal organism as well as an important nosocomial pathogen, and its infections are typically linked to biofilm formation. Nearly 25% of the E. faecalis OG1RF genome encodes hypothetical genes or genes of unknown function. Elucidating their function and how these gene products influence biofilm formation is critical for understanding E. faecalis biology. To identify uncharacterized early biofilm determinants, we performed a genetic screen using an arrayed transposon (Tn) library containing ~2000 mutants in hypothetical genes/intergenic regions and identified eight uncharacterized predicted protein-coding genes required for biofilm formation. We demonstrate that OG1RF_10435 encodes a phosphatase that modulates global protein expression and arginine catabolism and propose renaming this gene bph (biofilm phosphatase). We present a workflow for combining phenotype-driven experimental and computational evaluation of hypothetical gene products in E. faecalis, which can be used to study hypothetical genes required for biofilm formation and other phenotypes of diverse bacteria.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF and its (p)ppGpp-deficient ?relA, ?relQ, and ?relA ?relQ mutants were grown in biofilms and evaluated for growth profiles, biofilm morphology, cell viability, and proteolytic activity. E. faecalis lacking (p)ppGpp had a diminished capacity to sustain biofilm formation over an extended period of time and expressed abundant proteolytic activity.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), a biofilm-forming pathogen, causes nosocomial infections. In recent years, drug resistance by enterococci has become increasingly severe due to widespread antibiotic abuse. Therefore, novel antibacterial agents are urgently needed. In this study, the synthetic retinoid compound CD437 was found to have potent bactericidal effect on E. faecalis. In addition, CD437 exhibited synergistic effects when administered in combination with gentamicin and additive effects when combined with ceftriaxone sodium. CD437 also inhibited biofilm formation by E. faecalis and exerted bactericidal effect on mature biofilm. Moreover, CD437 exhibited antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects against Staphylococcus. No bactericidal action of CD437 was observed against the gram-negative bacillus, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix formation was reduced. Overall, these findings indicate that CD437 has the potential to be developed as a novel antibacterial drug.
Project description:We have previously demonstrated that unencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis cps2 inhibits biofilm formation of Candida albicans, a fungus commonly found with E. faecalis in periapical lesion. In this study, we compared encapsulated and unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 strains relationship with osteoblastic (MG-63) cells, whereas E. faecalis ATCC 29212 were used as a reference strain.The binding capacity of E. faecalis to MG-63 cells as shown by each tested strain was comparable, but the unencapsulated strain was less invasive compared to the encapsulated and the reference strains. Moreover, quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) results showed that infecting unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 is a stronger stimulator for toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNAs, but not for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in osteoblastic cells. In conclusion, the performance of unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 when the bacterium interacts with osteoblastic cells is quite different from that of encapsulated E. faecalis cps2 and reference strains. It appears that the unencapsulated strain might contribute to the persistence of the periapical inflammatory response, depending on down-regulation of iNOS mRNA expression.
Project description:Enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive commensal bacterium of the gastrointestinal tract and an important opportunistic pathogen. Despite the increasing clinical significance of the enterococci, most of the genetic analysis of these organisms has focused on mobile genetic elements, and existing tools for manipulation and analysis of the core E. faecalis chromosome are limited. We are interested in a comprehensive analysis of the genetic determinants for biofilm formation encoded within the core E. faecalis genome. To identify such determinants, we developed a substantially improved system for transposon mutagenesis in E. faecalis based on a mini-mariner transposable element. Mutagenesis of wild-type E. faecalis with this element yielded predominantly mutants carrying a single copy of the transposable element, and insertions were distributed around the entire chromosome in an apparently random fashion. We constructed a library of E. faecalis transposon insertion mutants and screened this library to identify mutants exhibiting a defect in biofilm formation. Biofilm-defective mutants were found to carry transposon insertions both in genes that were previously known to play a role in biofilm formation and in new genes lacking any known function; for several genes identified in the screen, complementation analysis confirmed a direct role in biofilm formation. These results provide significant new information about the genetics of enterococcal biofilm formation and demonstrate the general utility of our transposon system for functional genomic analysis of E. faecalis.
Project description:Enterococci are commonly found in humans, animals and environments. Their highly adaptive mechanisms are related to several virulent determinants and their ability to resist antibiotics. Data on the relationship between the esp gene, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility profiles may differ between countries. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of esp gene and biofilm formation among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. We also investigated the possible association between the esp gene with antibiotic susceptibility patterns and biofilm formation. The isolates were collected from clinical samples and identified using biochemical tests and 16SRNA. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and a biofilm assay were conducted according to the established guidelines. Molecular detection by PCR was used to identify the esp gene using established primers. In total, 52 and 28 of E. faecalis and E. faecium were identified, respectively. E. faecium exhibited higher resistance rates compared to E. faecalis as follows: piperacillin/tazobactam (100% versus 1.9%), ampicillin (92.8% versus 1.9%), high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) (89.3% versus 25.0%) and penicillin (82.1% versus 7.7%). E. faecium produced more biofilms than E. faecalis (59.3% versus 49.0%). E. faecium acquired the esp gene more frequently than E. faecalis (78.6% versus 46.2%). Interestingly, the associations between ampicillin and tazobactam/piperacillin resistance with the esp gene were statistically significant (X2 = 4.581, p = 0.027; and X2 = 6.276, p = 0.012, respectively). Our results demonstrate that E. faecium exhibits high rates of antimicrobial resistance, esp gene acquisition and biofilm formation. These peculiar traits of E. faecium may have implications for the management of enterococcal infections in hospitals. Thus, concerted efforts by all parties in establishing appropriate treatment and effective control measures are warranted in future.
Project description:Objectives: This work assesses different methods to interfere with Enterococcus faecalis biofilms formed on human dentin slabs. Methods: First, methods are presented that select for small molecule inhibitors of biofilm targets using multi-well polystyrene biofilm plates. Next, we establish methodologies to study and interfere with biofilm formation on a medically relevant model, whereby biofilms are grown on human root dentin slabs. Results: Non-conventional D-amino acid (D-Leucine) can efficiently disperse biofilms formed on dentin slabs without disturbing planktonic growth. Cation chelators interfere with biofilm formation on dentin slabs and polystyrene surfaces, and modestly impact planktonic growth. Strikingly, sodium hypochlorite, the treatment conventionally used to decontaminate infected root canal systems, was extremely toxic to planktonic bacteria, but did not eradicate biofilm cells. Instead, it induced a viable but non-culturable state in biofilm cells when grown on dentin slabs. Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite may contribute to bacterial persistence. A combination of the methods described here can greatly contribute to the development of biofilm inhibitors and therapies to treat Enterococcus faecalis infections formed in the root canal system.