Project description:Cholesterol gallstone disease is a worldwide common disease. Cholesterol supersaturation in gallbladder bile is the prerequisite for its pathogenesis, while the mechanism is not completely understood. In this study, we find enrichment of gut microbiota (especially Desulfovibrionales) in patients with gallstone disease. Fecal transplantation of gut microbiota from gallstone patients to gallstone-resistant strain of mice can induce gallstone formation. Carrying Desulfovibrionales is associated with enhanced cecal secondary bile acids production and increase of bile acid hydrophobicity facilitating intestinal cholesterol absorption. Meanwhile, the metabolic product of Desulfovibrionales, H<sub>2</sub>S increase and is shown to induce hepatic FXR and inhibit CYP7A1 expression. Mice carrying Desulfovibrionales present induction of hepatic expression of cholesterol transporters Abcg5/g8 to promote biliary secretion of cholesterol as well. Our study demonstrates the role of gut microbiota, Desulfovibrionales, as an environmental regulator contributing to gallstone formation through its influence on bile acid and cholesterol metabolism.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Elucidating gut microbiota among gallstone patients as well as the complex bacterial colonization of cholesterol gallstones may help in both the prediction and subsequent lowered risk of cholelithiasis. To this end, we studied the composition of bacterial communities of gut, bile, and gallstones from 29 gallstone patients as well as the gut of 38 normal individuals, examining and analyzing some 299, 217 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from 120 samples. RESULTS: First, as compared with normal individuals, in gallstone patients there were significant (P < 0.001) increases of gut bacterial phylum Proteobacteria and decreases of three gut bacterial genera, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, and Roseburia. Second, about 70% of gut bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from gallstone patients were detectable in the biliary tract and bacteria diversity of biliary tract was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that of gut. Third, analysis of the biliary tract core microbiome (represented by 106 bacteria OTUs) among gallstone patients showed that 33.96% (36/106) of constituents can be matched to known bacterial species (15 of which have publicly available genomes). A genome-wide search of MDR, BSH, bG, and phL genes purpotedly associated with the formation of cholesterol gallstones showed that all 15 species with known genomes (e.g., Propionibacterium acnes, Bacteroides vulgates, and Pseudomonas putida) contained at least contained one of the four genes. This finding could potentially provide underlying information needed to explain the association between biliary tract microbiota and the formation of cholesterol gallstones. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to discover gut microbiota dysbiosis among gallstone patients, the presence of which may be a key contributor to the complex bacteria community assembly linked with the presence of cholesterol gallstones. Likewise, this study also provides the first large-scale glimpse of biliary tract microbiota potentially associated with cholesterol gallstones. Such a characterization of the biliary tract core microbiome has potentially important biological and medical implications regarding the role of bacteria in the formation cholesterol gallstones.
Project description:<h4>Purpose of review</h4>Gallstone disease is a major epidemiologic and economic burden worldwide, and the most frequent form is cholesterol gallstone disease.<h4>Recent findings</h4>Major pathogenetic factors for cholesterol gallstones include a genetic background, hepatic hypersecretion of cholesterol, and supersaturated bile which give life to precipitating cholesterol crystals that accumulate and grow in a sluggish gallbladder. Additional factors include mucin and inflammatory changes in the gallbladder, slow intestinal motility, increased intestinal absorption of cholesterol, and altered gut microbiota. Mechanisms of disease are linked with insulin resistance, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The role of nuclear receptors, signaling pathways, gut microbiota, and epigenome are being actively investigated.<h4>Summary</h4>Ongoing research on cholesterol gallstone disease is intensively investigating several pathogenic mechanisms, associated metabolic disorders, new therapeutic approaches, and novel strategies for primary prevention, including lifestyles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The gut microbiota participates in the metabolism of substances and energy, promotes the development and maturation of the immune system, forms the mucosal barrier, and protects the host from pathogen attacks. Although the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones is still not clear, studies have suggested that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in their formation. METHODS:Microbial DNA from faeces of normal control patients and those of patients with calculi was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing to detect gene expression changes in intestinal microbes. ELISA kits were used to measure free bile acids, secondary bile acids and coprostanol according to the manufacturer's instructions. The relationship between flora and their metabolites was then analysed. RESULTS:In the gallstone group, the diversity of intestinal bacteria and the abundances of certain phylogroups were significantly decreased (p?<?0.05), especially Firmicutes (p?<?0.05), the largest phylum represented by the gut microbiota. This study found an increase in free bile acids (p?<?0.001) and secondary bile acids (p?<?0.01) in the enterohepatic circulation. Bile salt hydrolase activity was not related to the abundances of BSH-active bacteria. 7a-dehydroxylating gut bacteria were significantly increased (p?<?0.01), whereas cholesterol-lowering bacteria were significantly reduced (p?<?0.05). The Ruminococcus gnavus group could be used as a biomarker to distinguish the gallstone group from the control group. CONCLUSION:We conclude that intestinal flora imbalance affects bile acid and cholesterol metabolism and is associated with gallstone formation.
Project description:There are few studies on the changes of gut microbiota in patients with gallstones, especially in patients with asymptomatic gallstones, and there are some deficiencies in these studies, for instance, the effects of metabolic factors on gut microbiota are not considered. Here, we selected 30 asymptomatic gallstone patients from the survey population, and 30 controls according to the age and BMI index matching principle. The 16SrDNA technology was used to detect and compare the structural differences in the gut microbiota between the two groups. Compared with healthy controls, the abundance of gut microbiota in patients with gallstones increased significantly, while the microbiota diversity decreased. At the level of phylum, both groups were dominated by <i>Firmicutes</i>, <i>Bacteroides</i>, <i>Proteobacteria</i>, and <i>Actinobacteria</i>. At the genus level, there were 15 species with significant differences in abundance between the two groups. Further subgroup analysis found that only unclassified <i>Lactobacillales</i> showed differences in the intestines of gallstones patients with hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or patients with elevated BMI (≧24). The structure of gut microbiota in patients with gallstones changed significantly, and this might be related to the occurrence of gallstones, rather than metabolic factors such as hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Hepatic lipid metabolism regulates biliary composition and influences the formation of cholesterol gallstones. The genes Hmgcr and Cyp7a1, which encode key liver enzymes, are regulated by circadian rhythm-related transcription factors. We aimed to investigate the effect of circadian rhythm disruption on hepatic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism and the incidence of cholesterol stone formation. <h4>Methods</h4> Adult male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a lithogenic diet (LD) only during the sleep phase (time-restricted lithogenic diet feeding, TRF) or an LD ad libitum (non-time-restricted lithogenic diet feeding, nTRF) for 4 weeks. Food consumption, body mass gain, and the incidence of gallstones were assessed. Circulating metabolic parameters, lipid accumulation in the liver, the circadian expression of hepatic clock and metabolic genes, and the gut microbiota were analyzed. <h4>Results</h4> TRF caused a dysregulation of the circadian rhythm in the mice, characterized by significant differences in the circadian expression patterns of clock-related genes. In TRF mice, the circadian rhythms in the expression of genes involved in bile acid and cholesterol metabolism were disrupted, as was the circadian rhythm of the gut microbiota. These changes were associated with high biliary cholesterol content, which promoted gallstone formation in the TRF mice. <h4>Conclusion</h4> Disordered circadian rhythm is associated with abnormal hepatic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in mice, which promotes gallstone formation.
Project description:Background:A functional interplay between BAs and microbial composition in gut is a well-documented phenomenon. In bile, this phenomenon is far less studied, and with this report, we describe the interactions between the BAs and microbiota in this complex biological matrix. Methodology. Thirty-seven gallstone disease patients of which twenty-one with Opisthorchis felineus infection were enrolled in the study. The bile samples were obtained during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone disease operative treatment. Common bile acid composition was measured by LC-MS/MS. Gallbladder microbiota were previously analyzed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing on Illumina MiSeq platform. The associations between bile acid composition and microbiota were analyzed. Results:Bile acid signature and Opisthorchis felineus infection status exert influence on beta-diversity of bile microbial community. Direct correlations were found between taurocholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid concentrations, and alpha-diversity of bile microbiota. Taurocholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid both show positive associations with the presence of Chitinophagaceae family, Microbacterium and Lutibacterium genera, and Prevotella intermedia. Also, direct associations were identified for taurocholic acid concentration and the presence of Actinomycetales and Bacteroidales orders, Lautropia genus, Jeotgalicoccus psychrophilus, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae as well as for taurochenodeoxycholic acid and Acetobacteraceae family and Sphingomonas genus. There were no differences in bile acid concentrations between O. felineus-infected and noninfected patients. Conclusions/Significance. Associations between diversity, taxonomic profile of bile microbiota, and bile acid levels were evidenced in patients with cholelithiasis. Increase of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and taurocholic acid concentration correlates with bile microbiota alpha-diversity and appearance of opportunistic pathogens.