Project description:Although microbial metabolic engineering has traditionally relied on rational and knowledge-driven techniques, significant improvements in strain performance can be further obtained through the use of combinatorial approaches exploiting phenotypic diversification and screening. Here, we demonstrate the combined use of global transcriptional machinery engineering and a high-throughput L-tyrosine screen towards improving L-tyrosine production in Escherichia coli. This methodology succeeded in generating three strains from two separate mutagenesis libraries (rpoA and rpoD) exhibiting up to a 114% increase in L-tyrosine titer over a rationally engineered parental strain with an already high capacity for production. Subsequent strain characterization through transcriptional analysis and whole genome sequencing allowed complete phenotype reconstruction from well-defined mutations and point to important roles for both the acid stress resistance pathway and the stringent response of E. coli in imparting this phenotype. As such, this study presents one of the first examples in which cell-wide measurements have helped to elucidate the genetic and biochemical underpinnings of an engineered cellular property, leading to the total restoration of metabolite overproduction from specific chromosomal mutations.
Project description:The health benefits of flavonoids for humans are increasingly attracting attention. Because the extraction of high-purity flavonoids from plants presents a major obstacle, interest has emerged in biosynthesizing them using microbial hosts. Eriodictyol is a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Its efficient synthesis has been hampered by two factors: the poor expression of cytochrome P450 and the low intracellular malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) concentration in Escherichia coli. To address these issues, a truncated plant P450 flavonoid, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (tF3'H), was functionally expressed as a fusion protein with a truncated P450 reductase (tCPR) in E. coli. This allowed the engineered E. coli to produce eriodictyol from l-tyrosine by simultaneously coexpressing the fusion protein with tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI). In addition, metabolic engineering was employed to enhance the availability of malonyl-CoA so as to achieve a new metabolic balance and rebalance the relative expression of genes to enhance eriodictyol accumulation. This approach made the production of eriodictyol 203% higher than that in the control strain. By using these strategies, the production of eriodictyol from l-tyrosine reached 107 mg/liter. The present work offers an approach to the efficient synthesis of other hydroxylated flavonoids from l-tyrosine or even glucose in E. coli.
Project description:Several biochemical properties of a 43 kDa v-abl-encoded tyrosine-specific protein kinase (p43v-abl) expressed in Escherichia coli were examined. p43v-abl is a fragment of a 60 kDa v-abl-encoded precursor, p60v-abl, and could be generated by limited proteolysis of a purified p60v-abl with trypsin. Tryptic cleavage of p60v-abl was prevented in the presence of ATP. These results suggest that the catalytic kinase domain of v-abl-derived protein can be separated from other (regulatory) domains by limited proteolysis. p43v-abl readily phosphorylated tyrosine residues on several different protein and peptide substrates, including peptides containing only two amino acid residues. However, the local sequence of the tyrosine-containing peptide substrate significantly affected its rate of phosphorylation. Thus the primary structure and local conformation at the tyrosine acceptor site can play an important role in determining the substrate specificity of v-abl-derived kinase. Phosphorylation by p43v-abl requires Mn2+, Co2+ or Mg2+ and exhibits a strong preference for ATP as phosphate donor. Analogues of ATP and the thiol-reactive reagent N-ethylmaleimide inhibited p43v-abl kinase activity. Purified p43v-abl is intrinsically thermolabile (t1/2 = 5 min at 40 degrees C) and phosphorylates glycerol inefficiently (Km = 1.4 M).
Project description:L-tyrosine is a commercially important compound in the food, pharmaceutical, chemical, and cosmetic industries. Although several attempts have been made to improve L-tyrosine production, translation-level expression control and carbon flux rebalancing around phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) node still remain to be achieved for optimizing the pathway. Here, we demonstrate pathway optimization by altering gene expression levels for L-tyrosine production in Escherichia coli. To optimize the L-tyrosine biosynthetic pathway, a synthetic constitutive promoter and a synthetic 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) were introduced for each gene of interest to allow for control at both transcription and translation levels. Carbon flux rebalancing was achieved by controlling the expression level of PEP synthetase using UTR Designer. The L-tyrosine productivity of the engineered E. coli strain was increased through pathway optimization resulting in 3.0 g/L of L-tyrosine titer, 0.0354 g L-tyrosine/h/g DCW of productivity, and 0.102 g L-tyrosine/g glucose yield. Thus, this work demonstrates that pathway optimization by 5'-UTR redesign is an effective strategy for the development of efficient L-tyrosine-producing bacteria.
Project description:Non-natural amino acids have been genetically encoded in living cells, using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-tRNA pairs orthogonal to the host translation system. In the present study, we engineered Escherichia coli cells with a translation system orthogonal to the E. coli tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS)-tRNA(Tyr) pair, to use E. coli TyrRS variants for non-natural amino acids in the cells without interfering with tyrosine incorporation. We showed that the E. coli TyrRS-tRNA(Tyr) pair can be functionally replaced by the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tyrosine pairs, which do not cross-react with E. coli TyrRS or tRNA(Tyr). The endogenous TyrRS and tRNA(Tyr) genes were then removed from the chromosome of the E. coli cells expressing the archaeal TyrRS-tRNA(Tyr) pair. In this engineered strain, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine and 3-azido-L-tyrosine were each successfully encoded with the amber codon, using the E. coli amber suppressor tRNATyr and a TyrRS variant, which was previously developed for 3-iodo-L-tyrosine and was also found to recognize 3-azido-L-tyrosine. The structural basis for the 3-azido-L-tyrosine recognition was revealed by X-ray crystallography. The present engineering allows E. coli TyrRS variants for non-natural amino acids to be developed in E. coli, for use in both eukaryotic and bacterial cells for genetic code expansion.
Project description:The peroxynitrite anion is a potent oxidizing agent, formed by the diffusion-limited combination of nitric oxide and superoxide, and its production under physiological conditions is associated with the pathologies of a number of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Nitration of Escherichia coli iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) by peroxynitrite was investigated, and demonstrated by spectral changes and electrospray mass spectroscopic analysis. HPLC and mass studies of the tryptic digests of the mono-nitrated Fe-SOD indicated that tyrosine-34 was the residue most susceptible to nitration by peroxynitrite. Exclusive nitration of this residue occurred when Fe-SOD was exposed to a cumulative dose of 0.4 mM peroxynitrite. Unlike with human Mn-SOD, this single modification did not inactivate E. coli Fe-SOD at pH 7.4. When Fe-SOD was exposed to higher concentrations of peroxynitrite (7 mM), eight tyrosine residues per subunit of the protein, of the nine available, were nitrated without loss of catalytic activity of the enzyme. The pK(a) of nitrated tyrosine-34 was determined to be 7.95+/-0.15, indicating that the peroxynitrite-modified enzyme appreciably maintains its protonation state under physiological conditions.
Project description:Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are deadly contaminants in water and food and induce protrusion of actin-rich membrane pedestals beneath themselves upon attachment to intestinal epithelia. EPEC then causes intestinal inflammation, diarrhea, and, among children, death. Here, we show that EPEC uses multiple tyrosine kinases for formation of pedestals, each of which is sufficient but not necessary. In particular, we show that Abl and Arg, members of the Abl family of tyrosine kinases, localize and are activated in pedestals. We also show that pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine (PD) compounds, which inhibit Abl, Arg, and related kinases, block pedestal formation. Finally, we show that Abl and Arg are sufficient for pedestal formation in the absence of other tyrosine kinase activity, but they are not necessary. Our results suggest that additional kinases that are sensitive to inhibition by PD also can suffice. Together, these results suggest that EPEC has evolved a mechanism to use any of several functionally redundant tyrosine kinases during pathogenesis, perhaps facilitating its capacity to infect different cell types. Moreover, PD compounds are being developed to treat cancers caused by dysregulated Abl. Our results raise the possibility that PD may be useful in treating EPEC infections, and because PD affects host and not bacterium, selecting resistant strains may be far less likely than with conventional antibiotics.
Project description:Under oxidative stress conditions, hydroxyl radicals can oxidize the phenyl ring of phenylalanine, producing the abnormal tyrosine isomer meta-tyrosine (m-tyrosine). m-Tyrosine levels are commonly used as a biomarker of oxidative stress, and its accumulation has recently been reported to adversely affect cells, suggesting a direct role for m-tyrosine in oxidative stress effects. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of tyrosine aminotransferase (TATN-1)-the first enzyme involved in the metabolic degradation of tyrosine-is up-regulated in response to oxidative stress and directly activated by the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor SKN-1. Worms deficient in tyrosine aminotransferase activity displayed increased sensitivity to multiple sources of oxidative stress. Biochemical assays revealed that m-tyrosine is a substrate for TATN-1-mediated deamination, suggesting that TATN-1 also metabolizes m-tyrosine. Consistent with a toxic effect of m-tyrosine and a protective function of TATN-1, tatn-1 mutant worms exhibited delayed development, marked reduction in fertility, and shortened lifespan when exposed to m-tyrosine. A forward genetic screen identified a mutation in the previously uncharacterized gene F01D4.5-homologous with human transcription factor 20 (TCF20) and retinoic acid-induced 1 (RAI1)-that suppresses the adverse phenotypes observed in m-tyrosine-treated tatn-1 mutant worms. RNA-Seq analysis of F01D4.5 mutant worms disclosed a significant reduction in the expression of specific isoforms of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, suggesting that alterations in protein synthesis or ribosome structure could diminish the adverse effects of m-tyrosine. Our findings uncover a critical role for tyrosine aminotransferase in the oxidative stress response via m-tyrosine metabolism.
Project description:In this study we investigated the role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in the immune response to the Gram-positive intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). In response to Lm infection, Btk was activated in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and Btk (-/-) BMMs showed enhanced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12p40 secretion, while type I interferons were produced at levels similar to wild-type (wt) BMMs. Although Btk-deficient BMMs displayed reduced phagocytosis of E. coli fragments, there was no difference between wt and Btk (-/-) BMMs in the uptake of Lm upon infection. Moreover, there was no difference in the response to heat-killed Lm between wt and Btk (-/-) BMMs, suggesting a role for Btk in signaling pathways that are induced by intracellular Lm. Finally, Btk (-/-) mice displayed enhanced resistance and an increased mean survival time upon Lm infection in comparison to wt mice. This correlated with elevated IFN-? and IL-12p70 serum levels in Btk (-/-) mice at day 1 after infection. Taken together, our data suggest an important regulatory role for Btk in macrophages during Lm infection.
Project description:The gene (tutA) encoding tyrosine phenol-lyase from Erwinia herbicola was cloned into Escherichia coli, and fusions to the lac and tac promoters were constructed. The enzyme was expressed at high levels in E. coli in the presence of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside or lactose as an inducer. L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine was synthesized in high yield from catechol, pyruvate, and ammonia by induced cells.