Project description:The goal of the study was to examine the influence of flowback water exposure on bacterial survival and biocide tolerance. The transcriptome of P. fluorescens was analyzed using RNA-seq to determine the gene rxpression profile changes occuring upon flowback water exposure. The results indicate that that P. fluorescens induces a well-coordinated genetic response that aids in its survival in flowback water as well as imparts enhanced tolerance against typically used slow acting biocides such as gluteraldehyde but increased susceptibity towards sodium hypochlorite. RNA-seq data demonstrated significant induction of genes involved in osmotic stress, energy production and conversion, membrane integrity, protein transport among others. Examination of P. fluorescens transcriptome exposed to flowback water for one hour and compare with PBS exposed cells.
Project description:This study considers the flux of radioactivity in flowback fluid from shale gas development in three areas: the Carboniferous, Bowland Shale, UK; the Silurian Shale, Poland; and the Carboniferous Barnett Shale, USA. The radioactive flux from these basins was estimated, given estimates of the number of wells developed or to be developed, the flowback volume per well and the concentration of K (potassium) and Ra (radium) in the flowback water. For comparative purposes, the range of concentration was itself considered within four scenarios for the concentration range of radioactive measured in each shale gas basin, the groundwater of the each shale gas basin, global groundwater and local surface water. The study found that (i) for the Barnett Shale and the Silurian Shale, Poland, the 1 % exceedance flux in flowback water was between seven and eight times that would be expected from local groundwater. However, for the Bowland Shale, UK, the 1 % exceedance flux (the flux that would only be expected to be exceeded 1 % of the time, i.e. a reasonable worst case scenario) in flowback water was 500 times that expected from local groundwater. (ii) In no scenario was the 1 % exceedance exposure greater than 1 mSv-the allowable annual exposure allowed for in the UK. (iii) The radioactive flux of per energy produced was lower for shale gas than for conventional oil and gas production, nuclear power production and electricity generated through burning coal.
Project description:Involving the fluid-particle hydrodynamic process and hydraulically created fracture network, fracturing-fluid flowback in hydraulically fractured shale wells is a complex transport behavior. However, there is limited research on investigating the influence of proppant transport on the fracturing-fluid flowback behavior and flowback data analysis. In this paper, a flowback model is developed to simulate the flowback behaviors of the carrying fluid and proppant from the recompacted fracture system in shale wells. The development of fluid pressure and proppant concentration profiles of the fractured shale well are presented. The fluid and proppant fluxes among the hydraulic primary fracture and the induced fracture are also calculated. The influences of proppant consideration or not, proppant density, proppant size, fracturing-fluid viscosity, and fracturing-fluid density on the flowback behavior are investigated. The simulation results are useful for fracturing-fluid optimization in the design phase. Finally, two field cases from the Longmaxi Formation, Southern Sichuan Basin, China are used for matching the actual flowback data with the model results. The results prove that the proppant transport has influence on the flowback behavior to some degree and should be considered in the flowback model for a rather elaborate flowback analysis and post-treatment fracture evaluation.
Project description:An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of ?-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3) mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.
Project description:Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs). In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs) and aeruginosins (AERs), were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins.
Project description:Unconventional oil and gas exploration in the United States has experienced a period of rapid growth, followed by several years of limited production due to falling and low natural gas and oil prices. Throughout this transition, the water use for hydraulic fracturing and wastewater production in major shale gas and oil production regions has increased; from 2011 to 2016, the water use per well increased up to 770%, while flowback and produced water volumes generated within the first year of production increased up to 1440%. The water-use intensity (that is, normalized to the energy production) increased ubiquitously in all U.S. shale basins during this transition period. The steady increase of the water footprint of hydraulic fracturing with time implies that future unconventional oil and gas operations will require larger volumes of water for hydraulic fracturing, which will result in larger produced oil and gas wastewater volumes.
Project description:The organic composition of produced waters (flowback and formation waters) from the middle member of the Bakken Formation and the Three Forks Formation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota were examined to aid in the remediation of surface contamination and help develop treatment methods for produced-water recycling. Twelve produced water samples were collected from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations and analyzed for non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC), acetate, and extractable hydrocarbons. NPDOC and acetate concentrations from sampled wells from ranged from 33-190 mg per liter (mg/L) and 16-40 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations of individual extractable hydrocarbon compounds ranged from less than 1 to greater than 400 ?g per liter (?g/L), and included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds, glycol ethers, and cyclic ketones. While the limited number of samples, varying well production age, and lack of knowledge of on-going well treatments complicate conclusions, this report adds to the limited knowledge of organics in produced waters from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations.