Project description:Caulobacter crescentus is a premier model organism for studying the molecular basis of cellular asymmetry. The Caulobacter community has generated a wealth of high-throughput spatiotemporal databases including data from gene expression profiling experiments (microarrays, RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, ribosome profiling, LC-ms proteomics), gene essentiality studies (Tn-seq), genome wide protein localization studies, and global chromosome methylation analyses (SMRT sequencing). A major challenge involves the integration of these diverse data sets into one comprehensive community resource. To address this need, we have generated CauloBrowser (www.caulobrowser.org), an online resource for Caulobacter studies. This site provides a user-friendly interface for quickly searching genes of interest and downloading genome-wide results. Search results about individual genes are displayed as tables, graphs of time resolved expression profiles, and schematics of protein localization throughout the cell cycle. In addition, the site provides a genome viewer that enables customizable visualization of all published high-throughput genomic data. The depth and diversity of data sets collected by the Caulobacter community makes CauloBrowser a unique and valuable systems biology resource.
Project description:Small RNAs are important for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, affecting stability and activity of their target mRNAs. The bacterial Sm-like protein Hfq is required to promote pairing between both RNAs when their sequence complementarity is limited. To provide a first global view on the post-transcriptional landscape of the ?-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, we have identified the Hfq-binding RNAs employing High-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP). A total of 261 RNAs, including 3 unannotated RNAs, were successfully identified and classified according to putative function. Moreover, possible interactions between the identified sRNAs with mRNA targets were postulated through computational target predictions.
Project description:Caulobacter crescentus is a model organism for the integrated circuitry that runs a bacterial cell cycle. Full discovery of its essential genome, including non-coding, regulatory and coding elements, is a prerequisite for understanding the complete regulatory network of a bacterial cell. Using hyper-saturated transposon mutagenesis coupled with high-throughput sequencing, we determined the essential Caulobacter genome at 8 bp resolution, including 1012 essential genome features: 480 ORFs, 402 regulatory sequences and 130 non-coding elements, including 90 intergenic segments of unknown function. The essential transcriptional circuitry for growth on rich media includes 10 transcription factors, 2 RNA polymerase sigma factors and 1 anti-sigma factor. We identified all essential promoter elements for the cell cycle-regulated genes. The essential elements are preferentially positioned near the origin and terminus of the chromosome. The high-resolution strategy used here is applicable to high-throughput, full genome essentiality studies and large-scale genetic perturbation experiments in a broad class of bacterial species.
Project description:Caulobacter crescentus is a model for the bacterial cell cycle which culminates in asymmetric cell division, yet little is known about the absolute levels of protein synthesis of the cellular parts needed to complete the cell cycle. Here we utilize ribosome profiling to provide absolute measurements of mRNA translation in C. crescentus, providing an important resource with quantitative genome-wide measurements of protein output across individual genes. Analysis of protein synthesis rates revealed ?4.5% of cellular protein synthesis is for genes related to vitamin B12 import (btuB) and B12-independent methionine biosynthesis (metE) when grown in common growth media lacking B12 While its facultative B12 lifestyle provides a fitness advantage in the absence of B12, we find that it provides a fitness disadvantage of the cells in the presence of B12, potentially explaining why many Caulobacter species have lost the metE gene and become obligates for B12 IMPORTANCE Caulobacter crescentus is a model system of the bacterial cell cycle culminating in asymmetric cell division, with each daughter cell inheriting a distinct set of proteins. While a genetic network of master transcription factors coordinates the cell cycle timing of transcription for nearly 20% of Caulobacter genes, we lack knowledge of how many of each protein "part" encoded in the genome are synthesized. Therefore, to determine the absolute production rates across the genome, we performed ribosome profiling, providing, for the first time, a quantitative resource with measurements of each protein "part" needed to generate daughter cells. This resource furthers the goal of a systems-level understanding of the genetic network controlling asymmetric cell division. To highlight the utility of this data set, we probe the protein synthesis cost of a B12 utilization pathway and provide new insights into Caulobacter's adaptation to its natural environments.
Project description:Bio-production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic C5 sugars usually requires the use of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to produce pyruvate. Unfortunately, the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A results in the loss of 33?% of the carbon as CO2, to the detriment of sustainability and process economics. To improve atom efficiency, we engineered Escherichia coli to utilize d-xylose constitutively using the Weimberg pathway, to allow direct production of 2-oxoglutarate without CO2 loss. After confirming enzyme expression in vitro, the pathway expression was optimized in vivo using a combinatorial approach, by screening a range of constitutive promoters whilst systematically varying the gene order. A PPP-deficient (?xylAB), 2-oxoglutarate auxotroph (?icd) was used as the host strain, so that growth on d-xylose depended on the expression of the Weimberg pathway, and variants expressing Caulobacter crescentus xylXAB could be selected on minimal agar plates. The strains were isolated and high-throughput measurement of the growth rates on d-xylose was used to identify the fastest growing variant. This strain contained the pL promoter, with C. crescentus xylA at the first position in the synthetic operon, and grew at 42?% of the rate on d-xylose compared to wild-type E. coli using the PPP. Remarkably, the biomass yield was improved by 53.5?% compared with the wild-type upon restoration of icd activity. Therefore, the strain grows efficiently and constitutively on d-xylose, and offers great potential for use as a new host strain to engineer carbon-efficient production of fuels and chemicals via the Weimberg pathway.
Project description:In most bacteria, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls iron homeostasis and other cellular processes, such as oxidative stress defense. In this work, we apply a combination of bioinformatics, in vitro and in vivo assays to identify the Caulobacter crescentus Fur regulon. A C. crescentus fur deletion mutant showed a slow growth phenotype, and was hypersensitive to H(2)O(2) and organic peroxide. Using a position weight matrix approach, several predicted Fur-binding sites were detected in the genome of C. crescentus, located in regulatory regions of genes not only involved in iron uptake and usage but also in other functions. Selected Fur-binding sites were validated using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNAse I footprinting analysis. Gene expression assays revealed that genes involved in iron uptake were repressed by iron-Fur and induced under conditions of iron limitation, whereas genes encoding iron-using proteins were activated by Fur under conditions of iron sufficiency. Furthermore, several genes that are regulated via small RNAs in other bacteria were found to be directly regulated by Fur in C. crescentus. In conclusion, Fur functions as an activator and as a repressor, integrating iron metabolism and oxidative stress response in C. crescentus.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE25996: Expression data from Caulobacter crescentus starved for carbon GSE25997: Expression data from Caulobacter crescentus (syn. C. vibrioides) swarmer and stalked cells starved for carbon GSE25998: Expression data from WT, DSigT and DSigU Caulobacter crescentus (syn. C. vibrioides) starved for carbon Refer to individual Series
Project description:Despite the importance of subcellular localization for cellular activities, the lack of high-throughput, high-resolution imaging and quantitation methodologies has limited genomic localization analysis to a small number of archival studies focused on C-terminal fluorescent protein fusions. Here, we develop a high-throughput pipeline for generating, imaging, and quantitating fluorescent protein fusions that we use for the quantitative genomic assessment of the distributions of both N- and C-terminal fluorescent protein fusions. We identify nearly 300 localized Caulobacter crescentus proteins, up to 10-fold more than were previously characterized. The localized proteins tend to be involved in spatially or temporally dynamic processes and proteins that function together and often localize together as well. The distributions of the localized proteins were quantitated by using our recently described projected system of internal coordinates from interpolated contours (PSICIC) image analysis toolkit, leading to the identification of cellular regions that are over- or under-enriched in localized proteins and of potential differences in the mechanisms that target proteins to different subcellular destinations. The Caulobacter localizome data thus represent a resource for studying both global properties of protein localization and specific protein functions, whereas the localization analysis pipeline is a methodological resource that can be readily applied to other systems.
Project description:A Caulobacter crescentus alkB gene homolog was identified in a clone previously shown to contain the heat shock genes dnaK and dnaJ; the homolog is located upstream of dnaK and is transcribed in the opposite orientation. An analysis of the alkB gene has shown that the deduced amino acid sequence is that of a 21-kDa protein, which is 42% identical and 78% similar to Escherichia coli AlkB. Furthermore, an alkB-null mutant was constructed by gene disruption and was shown to be highly sensitive to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). However, the alkB gene of C. crescentus, unlike its E. coli counterpart, is not located downstream of the ada gene, and its transcription is not induced by alkylating agents. In addition, no acquired enhanced resistance to MMS toxicity by treatment with low MMS doses was observed, suggesting that no adaptive response occurs in C. crescentus. Nevertheless, transcription of the alkB gene is cell cycle controlled, with a pattern of expression similar to that of several Caulobacter genes involved in DNA replication.
Project description:Cell division in Caulobacter crescentus involves constriction and fission of the inner membrane (IM) followed about 20 min later by fission of the outer membrane (OM) and daughter cell separation. In contrast to Escherichia coli, the Caulobacter Tol-Pal complex is essential. Cryo-electron microscopy images of the Caulobacter cell envelope exhibited outer membrane disruption, and cells failed to complete cell division in TolA, TolB, or Pal mutant strains. In wild-type cells, components of the Tol-Pal complex localize to the division plane in early predivisional cells and remain predominantly at the new pole of swarmer and stalked progeny upon completion of division. The Tol-Pal complex is required to maintain the position of the transmembrane TipN polar marker, and indirectly the PleC histidine kinase, at the cell pole, but it is not required for the polar maintenance of other transmembrane and membrane-associated polar proteins tested. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments show that both TolA and Pal interact directly or indirectly with TipN. We propose that disruption of the trans-envelope Tol-Pal complex releases TipN from its subcellular position. The Caulobacter Tol-Pal complex is thus a key component of cell envelope structure and function, mediating OM constriction at the final step of cell division as well as the positioning of a protein localization factor.