Project description:The number of plant species regarded as non-mycorrhizal increases at higher latitudes, and several plant species in the High-Arctic Archipelago Svalbard have been reported as non-mycorrhizal. We used the rRNA ITS2 and 18S gene markers to survey which fungi, as well as other micro-eukaryotes, were associated with roots of 31 arctic plant species not usually regarded as mycorrhizal in Svalbard. We assessed to what degree the root-associated fungi showed any host preference and whether the phylogeny of the plant hosts may mirror the composition of root-associated fungi. Fungal communities were largely structured according to host plant identity and to a less extent by environmental factors. We observed a positive relationship between the phylogenetic distance of host plants and the distance of fungal community composition between samples, indicating that the evolutionary history of the host plants plays a major role for which fungi colonize the plant roots. In contrast to the ITS2 marker, the 18S rRNA gene marker showed that chytrid fungi were prevalently associated with plant roots, together with a wide spectrum of amoeba-like protists and nematodes. Our study confirms that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are present also in arctic environments in low abundance.
Project description:Citrus roots have rare root hairs and thus heavily depend on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for mineral nutrient uptake. However, the AMF community structure of citrus is largely unknown. By using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragment, we investigated the genetic diversity of AMF colonizing citrus roots, and evaluated the impact of habitats and rootstock and scion genotypes on the AMF community structure. Over 7,40,000 effective sequences were obtained from 77 citrus root samples. These sequences were assigned to 75 AMF virtual taxa, of which 66 belong to Glomus, highlighting an absolute dominance of this AMF genus in symbiosis with citrus roots. The citrus AMF community structure is significantly affected by habitats and host genotypes. Interestingly, our data suggests that the genotype of the scion exerts a greater impact on the AMF community structure than that of the rootstock where the physical root-AMF association occurs. This study not only provides a comprehensive assessment for the community composition of the AMF in citrus roots under different conditions, but also sheds novel insights into how the AMF community might be indirectly influenced by the spatially separated yet metabolically connected partner-the scion-of the grafted citrus tree.
Project description:Plant-mycorrhizal fungal interactions are ubiquitous in forest ecosystems. While ectomycorrhizal plants and their fungi generally dominate temperate forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is common in the tropics. In subtropical regions, however, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants co-occur at comparable abundances in single forests, presumably generating complex community structures of root-associated fungi. To reveal root-associated fungal community structure in a mixed forest of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, we conducted a massively-parallel pyrosequencing analysis, targeting fungi in the roots of 36 plant species that co-occur in a subtropical forest. In total, 580 fungal operational taxonomic units were detected, of which 132 and 58 were probably ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal, respectively. As expected, the composition of fungal symbionts differed between fagaceous (ectomycorrhizal) and non-fagaceous (possibly arbuscular mycorrhizal) plants. However, non-fagaceous plants were associated with not only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi but also several clades of ectomycorrhizal (e.g., Russula) and root-endophytic ascomycete fungi. Many of the ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi were detected from both fagaceous and non-fagaceous plants in the community. Interestingly, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were concurrently detected from tiny root fragments of non-fagaceous plants. The plant-fungal associations in the forest were spatially structured, and non-fagaceous plant roots hosted ectomycorrhizal fungi more often in the proximity of ectomycorrhizal plant roots. Overall, this study suggests that belowground plant-fungal symbiosis in subtropical forests is complex in that it includes "non-typical" plant-fungal combinations (e.g., ectomycorrhizal fungi on possibly arbuscular mycorrhizal plants) that do not fall within the conventional classification of mycorrhizal symbioses, and in that associations with multiple functional (or phylogenetic) groups of fungi are ubiquitous among plants. Moreover, ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts of fagaceous plants may "invade" the roots of neighboring non-fagaceous plants, potentially influencing the interactions between non-fagaceous plants and their arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal symbionts at a fine spatial scale.
Project description:Sophora tomentosa is a pantropical legume species with potential for recovery of areas degraded by salinization, and for stabilization of sand dunes. However, few studies on this species have been carried out, and none regarding its symbiotic relationship with beneficial soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of Sophora tomentosa, and to analyze the occurrence of colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the roots of this legume in seafront soil. Thus, seeds, root nodules, and soil from the rhizosphere of Sophora tomentosa were collected. From the soil samples, trap cultures with this species were established to extract spores and to evaluate arbuscular mycorhizal fungi colonization in legume roots, as well as to capture rhizobia. Rhizobia strains were isolated from nodules collected in the field or from the trap cultures. Representative isolates of the groups obtained in the similarity dendrogram, based on phenotypic characteristics, had their 16S rRNA genes sequenced. The legume species showed nodules with indeterminate growth, and reddish color, distributed throughout the root. Fifty-one strains of these nodules were isolated, of which 21 were classified in the genus Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and especially Sinorhizobium. Strains closely related to Sinorhizobium adhaerens were the predominant bacteria in nodules. The other genera found, with the exception of Rhizobium, are probably endophytic bacteria in the nodules. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was observed colonizing the roots, but arbuscular mycorhizal fungi spores were not found in the trap cultures. Therefore Sophora tomentosa is associated with both arbuscular mycorhizal fungi and nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Project description:In this study, we collected rhizosphere soils and root samples from a post-mining area and a natural forest area in Jecheon, Korea. We extracted spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from rhizospheres, and then examined the sequences of 18S rDNA genes of the AMF from the collected roots of plants. We compared the AMF communities in the post-mining area and the natural forest area by sequence analysis of the AMF spores from soils and of the AMF clones from roots. Consequently, we confirmed that the structure of AMF communities varied between the post-mining area and the natural forest area and showed significant relationship with heavy metal contents in soils. These results suggest that heavy metal contamination by mining activity significantly affects the AMF community structure.
Project description:Plant root systems play a fundamental role in nutrient and water acquisition. In resource-limited soils, modification of root system architecture is an important strategy to optimize plant performance. Most terrestrial plants also form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to maximize nutrient uptake. In addition to direct delivery of nutrients, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefit the plant host by promoting root growth. Here, we aimed to quantify the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on root growth and nutrient uptake in maize. Inoculated plants showed an increase in both biomass and the total content of twenty quantified elements. In addition, image analysis showed mycorrhizal plants to have denser, more branched root systems. For most of the quantified elements, the increase in content in mycorrhizal plants was proportional to root and overall plant growth. However, the increase in boron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, and strontium was greater than predicted by root system size alone, indicating fungal delivery to be supplementing root uptake.
Project description:Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.
Project description:Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions between plants and Glomeromycota fungi primarily support phosphate aquisition of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we used genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots. We used GeneChips to detail the global programme of gene expression in response to colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and in response to a treatment with phosphate and identified genes differentially expressed during this process. Overall design: Medicago truncatula roots were harvested at 28 days post inoculation with the two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices (Gi-Myc) and Glomus mosseae (Gm-Myc) under low phosphate conditions (20 µM phosphate) or after a 28 days treatment with 2 mM phosphate in the absence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (2mM-P). As a control, uninfected roots grown under low phosphate conditions (20 µM phosphate) were used (20miM-P). Three biological replicates consisting of pools of five roots were used for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix GeneChips.
Project description:Arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal symbioses are among the most important drivers of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics. Historically, the two types of symbioses have been investigated separately because arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal plant species are considered to host discrete sets of fungal symbionts (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi, respectively). Nonetheless, recent studies based on high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have suggested that diverse non-mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., endophytic fungi) with broad host ranges play roles in relationships between arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal plant species in forest ecosystems. By analyzing an Illumina sequencing dataset of root-associated fungi in a temperate forest in Japan, we statistically examined whether co-occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and ectomycorrhizal (Pinus densiflora) plant species could share non-mycorrhizal fungal communities. Among the 919 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected, OTUs in various taxonomic lineages were statistically designated as "generalists," which associated commonly with both coniferous species. The list of the generalists included fungi in the genera Meliniomyces, Oidiodendron, Cladophialophora, Rhizodermea, Penicillium, and Mortierella. Meanwhile, our statistical analysis also detected fungi preferentially associated with Chamaecyparis (e.g., Pezicula) or Pinus (e.g., Neolecta). Overall, this study provides a basis for future studies on how arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal plant species interactively drive community- or ecosystem-scale processes. The physiological functions of the fungi highlighted in our host-preference analysis deserve intensive investigations for understanding their roles in plant endosphere and rhizosphere.
Project description:Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions between plants and Glomeromycota fungi primarily support phosphate aquisition of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel cell-type specific gene expression during late stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we used genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on laser-microdissected cells. We used Medicago GeneChips to detail the cell-type specific programme of gene expression in late stages of colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and identified genes differentially expressed during these stages. Medicago truncatula Gaertn ‘Jemalong’ genotype A17 plantlets were grown in the climate chamber. Plants grown for the collection of root cortical cells containing arbuscules (ARB), root cortical cells from mycorrhizal roots (CMR), and root epidermal cells from mycorrhizal roots (EPI) were mycorrhized after 2 weeks with Glomus intraradices and mycorrhizal roots were harvested at around 21 days post inoculation (dpi).