Project description:A new metabolite, oxaspirol D (4), together with oxaspirols B (2) and C (3) were isolated from Lecythophora sp. FL1375, an endolichenic fungus isolated from Parmotrema tinctorum, whereas Lecythophora sp. FL1031 inhabiting the lichen Cladonia evansii afforded oxaspirols A (1), B (2), and C (3). Of these, oxaspirol B (2) showed moderate p97 ATPase inhibitory activity. A detailed characterization of all oxaspirols was undertaken because structures proposed for known oxaspirols have involved incomplete assignments of NMR spectroscopic data leading only to their planar structures. Thus, the naturally occurring isomeric mixture (2a and 2b) of oxaspirol B was separated as their diacetates (5a and 5b) and the structures and absolute configurations of 1, 2a, 2b, 3, and 4 were determined by the application of spectroscopic techniques including two-dimensional NMR and the modified Mosher's ester method. Oxaspirol B (2) and its diacetates 5a and 5b were evaluated for their ATPase inhibitory activities of p97, p97 mutants, and other ATP-utilizing enzymes, and only 2 was found to be active, indicating the requirement of some structural features in oxaspirols for their activity. Additional biochemical and cellular assays suggested that 2 was a reversible, non-ATP competitive, and specific inhibitor of p97.
2016-01-01 | S-EPMC4926610 | BioStudies
Project description:transcriptome of Filamentous Fungus Penicillium spp. DC-F11
Project description:Background:Particular species of the genus Coniochaeta (Sordariomycetes) exhibit great potential for bioabatement of furanic compounds and have been identified as an underexplored source of novel lignocellulolytic enzymes, especially Coniochaeta ligniaria. However, there is a lack of information about their genomic features and metabolic capabilities. Here, we report the first in-depth genome/transcriptome survey of a Coniochaeta species (strain 2T2.1). Results:The genome of Coniochaeta sp. strain 2T2.1 has a size of 74.53 Mbp and contains 24,735 protein-encoding genes. Interestingly, we detected a genome expansion event, resulting ~ 98% of the assembly being duplicated with 91.9% average nucleotide identity between the duplicated regions. The lack of gene loss, as well as the high divergence and strong genome-wide signatures of purifying selection between copies indicates that this is likely a recent duplication, which arose through hybridization between two related Coniochaeta-like species (allopolyploidization). Phylogenomic analysis revealed that 2T2.1 is related Coniochaeta sp. PMI546 and Lecythophora sp. AK0013, which both occur endophytically. Based on carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) annotation, we observed that even after in silico removal of its duplicated content, the 2T2.1 genome contains exceptional lignocellulolytic machinery. Moreover, transcriptomic data reveal the overexpression of proteins affiliated to CAZy families GH11, GH10 (endoxylanases), CE5, CE1 (xylan esterases), GH62, GH51 (α-l-arabinofuranosidases), GH12, GH7 (cellulases), and AA9 (lytic polysaccharide monoxygenases) when the fungus was grown on wheat straw compared with glucose as the sole carbon source. Conclusions:We provide data that suggest that a recent hybridization between the genomes of related species may have given rise to Coniochaeta sp. 2T2.1. Moreover, our results reveal that the degradation of arabinoxylan, xyloglucan and cellulose are key metabolic processes in strain 2T2.1 growing on wheat straw. Different genes for key lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified, which can be starting points for production, characterization and/or supplementation of enzyme cocktails used in saccharification of agricultural residues. Our findings represent first steps that enable a better understanding of the reticulate evolution and "eco-enzymology" of lignocellulolytic Coniochaeta species.
2019-01-01 | S-EPMC6757388 | BioStudies
Project description:transcriptome of Filamentous Fungus Penicillium spp. DC-F11(ck11-2)
| PRJNA592856 | ENA
Project description:transcriptome of Filamentous Fungus Penicillium spp. DC-F11(ck11-1)
| PRJNA595660 | ENA
Project description:transcriptome of Filamentous Fungus Penicillium spp. DC-F11(11-2)
| PRJNA593916 | ENA
Project description:transcriptome of Filamentous Fungus Penicillium spp. DC-F11(11-3)