Project description:The experiment was designed to test the interactions of Spartina alterniflora, its microbiome, and the interaction of the plant-microbe relationship with oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Total RNA was extracted from leaf and root microbiome of S. alterniflora in soils that were oiled in DWH oil spill with or without added oil, as well as those grown in unoiled soil with or without added oil. The work in its entirety characterizes the transport, fate and catabolic activities of bacterial communities in petroleum-polluted soils and within plant tissues. Overall design: Total RNA was extracted from leaf and root of Spartina alterniflora and converted immediately into cDNA, which was used for GeoChip 5.0S analysis. S. alterniflora was grown in one of the four conditions: DWH-impacted soil with added oil, DWH-impacted soil without added oil, previously unoiled soil with added oil, and previously unoiled soil without added oil (control). Triplicates of leaf and root samples were collected from each S. alterniflora, and thus a total of 24 samples were analyzed on GeoChip.
Project description:Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal diversity and shape community composition in E. erythropoda. Our findings shed light on the effect of soil petroleum contamination on fungal endophytic communities and could help to develop strategies for improving phytoremediation using fungal endophytes.
Project description:Bacterial endophytes with the capacity to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons and promote plant growth may facilitate phytoremediation for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. A hydrocarbon-degrading, biosurfactant-producing, and plant-growth-promoting endophytic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa L10, was isolated from the roots of a reed, Phragmites australis, in the Yellow River Delta, Shandong, China. P. aeruginosa L10 efficiently degraded C10-C26n-alkanes from diesel oil, as well as common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. In addition, P. aeruginosa L10 could produce biosurfactant, which was confirmed by the oil spreading method, and surface tension determination of inocula. Moreover, P. aeruginosa L10 had plant growth-stimulating attributes, including siderophore and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) release, along with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic (ACC) deaminase activity. To explore the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic traits of endophytic P. aeruginosa L10, we sequenced its complete genome. From the genome, we identified genes related to petroleum hydrocarbon degradation, such as putative genes encoding monooxygenase, dioxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Genome annotation revealed that P. aeruginosa L10 contained a gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids, rhlABRI, which should be responsible for the observed biosurfactant activity. We also identified two clusters of genes involved in the biosynthesis of siderophore (pvcABCD and pchABCDREFG). The genome also harbored tryptophan biosynthetic genes (trpAB, trpDC, trpE, trpF, and trpG) that are responsible for IAA synthesis. Moreover, the genome contained the ACC deaminase gene essential for ACC deaminase activity. This study will facilitate applications of endophytic P. aeruginosa L10 to phytoremediation by advancing the understanding of hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, and mutualistic interactions between endophytes and host plants.
Project description:An understanding of how fertilization influences endophytes is crucial for sustainable agriculture, since the manipulation of the plant microbiome could affect plant fitness and productivity. This study was focused on the response of microbial communities in the soil and tubers to the regular application of manure (MF; 330 kg N/ha), sewage sludge (SF; 330 and SF3x; 990 kg N/ha), and chemical fertilizer (NPK; 330-90-300 kg N-P-K/ha). Unfertilized soil was used as a control (CF), and the experiment was set up at two distinct sites. All fertilization treatments significantly altered the prokaryotic and fungal communities in soil, whereas the influence of fertilization on the community of endophytes differed for each site. At the site with cambisol, prokaryotic and fungal endophytes were significantly shifted by MF and SF3 treatments. At the site with chernozem, neither the prokaryotic nor fungal endophytic communities were significantly associated with fertilization treatments. Fertilization significantly increased the relative abundance of the plant-beneficial bacteria Stenotrophomonas, Sphingomonas and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In tubers, the relative abundance of Fusarium was lower in MF-treated soil compared to CF. Although fertilization treatments clearly influenced the soil and endophytic community structure, we did not find any indication of human pathogens being transmitted into tubers via organic fertilizers.
Project description:Bacterial endophytes (BEs) are non-pathogenic residents of healthy plant tissues that can confer benefits to plants. Many Bacterial endophytes have been shown to contribute to plant growth and health, alleviation of plant stress and to in-planta contaminant-degradation. This study examined the endophytic bacterial communities of plants growing abundantly in a heavily hydrocarbon contaminated site, and compared them to those found in the same species at a non-contaminated. We used culture- dependent and independent methods to characterize the community structure, hydrocarbon degrading capabilities, and plant growth promoting traits of cultivable endophytes isolated from Achillea millefolium, Solidago Canadensis, and Daucus carota plants from these two sites. Culture- dependent and independent analyses revealed class Gammaproteobacteria predominated in all the plants regardless of the presence of petroleum hydrocarbon, with Pantoea spp. as largely dominant. It was interesting to note a >50% taxonomic overlap (genus level) of 16s rRNA high throughput amplicon sequences with cultivable endophytes. PERMANOVA analysis of TRFLP fragments revealed significant structural differences between endophytic bacterial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated and non-contaminated soils-however, there was no marked difference in their functional capabilities. Pantoea spp. demonstrated plant beneficial characteristics, such as P solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production and presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Our findings reveal that functional capabilities of bacterial isolates being examined were not influenced by the presence of contamination; and that the stem endosphere supports ubiquitous BEs that were consistent throughout plant hosts and sites.
Project description:Many endophytic bacteria exert beneficial effects on their host, but still little is known about the bacteria associated with plants growing in areas heavily polluted by hydrocarbons. The aim of the study was characterization of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading endophytic bacteria associated with Lotus corniculatus L. and Oenothera biennis L. collected in long-term petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted site using culture-dependent and molecular approaches. A total of 26 hydrocarbon-degrading endophytes from these plants were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses classified the isolates into the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The majority of strains belonged to the genera Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Rhodococcus. More than 90% of the isolates could grow on medium with diesel oil, approximately 20% could use n-hexadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR analysis revealed that 40% of the isolates possessed the P450 gene encoding for cytochrome P450-type alkane hydroxylase (CYP153). In in vitro tests, all endophytic strains demonstrated a wide range of plant growth-promoting traits such as production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and phosphate solubilization. More than 40% of the bacteria carried the gene encoding for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (acdS). Our study shows that the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in tested plants was different. The results revealed also that the investigated plants were colonized by endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting features and a clear potential to degrade hydrocarbons. The properties of isolated endophytes indicate that they have the high potential to improve phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils.
Project description:It has been reported that the invasion of <i>Spartina alterniflora</i> changed the soil microbial community in the mangrove ecosystem in China, especially the bacterial community, although the response of soil fungal communities and soil microbial ecological functions to the invasion of <i>Spartina alterniflora</i> remains unclear. In this study, we selected three different communities (i.e., <i>Spartina alterniflora</i> community (SC), <i>Spartina alterniflora</i>-mangrove mixed community (TC), and mangrove community (MC)) in the Zhangjiangkou Mangrove Nature Reserve in China. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the impact of <i>Spartina alterniflora</i> invasion on mangrove soil microbial communities. Our results indicate that the invasion of <i>Spartina alterniflora</i> does not cause significant changes in microbial diversity, but it can alter the community structure of soil bacteria. The results of the LEfSe (LDA Effect Size) analysis show that the relative abundance of some bacterial taxa is not significantly different between the MC and SC communities, but different changes have occurred during the invasion process (i.e., TC community). Different from the results of the bacterial community, the invasion of <i>Spartina alterniflora</i> only cause a significant increase in few fungal taxa during the invasion process, and these taxa are at some lower levels (such as family, genus, and species) and classified into the phylum <i>Ascomycota</i>. Although the invasion of <i>Spartina alterniflora</i> changes the taxa with certain ecological functions, it may not change the potential ecological functions of soil microorganisms (i.e., the potential metabolic pathways of bacteria, nutritional patterns, and fungal associations). In general, the invasion of <i>Spartina alterniflora</i> changes the community structure of soil microorganisms, but it may not affect the potential ecological functions of soil microorganisms.