Project description:Cronobacter sakazakii is an important pathogen associated with the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), infant sepsis, and meningitis. Several randomized prospective clinical trials demonstrated that oral probiotics could decrease the incidence of NEC. Previously, we isolated and characterized a novel probiotic, Bacteroides fragilis strain ZY-312. However, it remains unclear how ZY-312 protects the host from the effects of C. sakazakii infection. To understand the underlying mechanisms triggering the probiotic effects, we tested the hypothesis that there was cross talk between probiotics/probiotics-modulated microbiota and the local immune system, governed by the permeability of the intestinal mucosa, using in vitro and in vivo models for the intestinal permeability. The probiotic effects of ZY-312 on intestinal epithelial cells were first examined, and the results revealed that ZY-312 inhibited C. sakazakii invasion, C. sakazakii-induced dual cell death (pyroptosis and apoptosis), and epithelial barrier dysfunction in vitro and in vivo The presence of ZY-312 also resulted in decreased expression of an inflammasome (NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3 [NLRP3]), caspase-3, and serine protease caspase-1 in a neonatal rat model. Furthermore, ZY-312 significantly modulated the compositions of the intestinal bacterial communities and decreased the relative abundances of Proteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria but increased the relative abundances of Bacteroides and Bacillus in neonatal rats. In conclusion, our findings have shown for the first time that the probiotic B. fragilis ZY-312 suppresses C. sakazakii-induced NEC by modulating the proinflammatory response and dual cell death (apoptosis and pyroptosis).IMPORTANCE Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium that can cause necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, the mechanism of pathogenicity of C. sakazakii is largely unknown. Here we have now demonstrated that apoptotic and pyroptotic stimuli are effectors of C. sakazakii-induced NEC. Previously, we isolated a novel probiotic strain candidate from fecal samples from healthy infants and characterized it as Bacteroides fragilis strain ZY-312. Functional characterization reveals that ZY-312 inhibited C. sakazakii invasion, restoring epithelial barrier dysfunction, decreasing the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and reducing dual cell death (pyroptosis and apoptosis). Furthermore, the presence of ZY-132 was sufficient to hinder the adverse reaction seen with C. sakazakii in a C. sakazakii-induced NEC model. Taking the results together, our study demonstrated the utility of ZY-312 as a promising probiotic agent for the prevention of NEC.
Project description:Crenobacter cavernae CAVE-375 and Oxalobacteriaceae sp. strain CAVE-383, two Gram-negative bacteria, were isolated during the first microbiology survey performed in a karst cave in Portugal. We report here the release of their high-quality draft genome sequences, which will be useful for geographic-ecological purposes and the description of novel taxa.
Project description:Here is the genome sequence of Haloparvum sedimenti DYS4, the type species of the genus Haloparvum, isolated from a salt mine. The DNA G+C content of this genome was 68.27 mol%. The scaffold N50 was 96,635 bp. The completely sequenced and annotated genome is 3,243,052 bp and contains 3,313 genes.
Project description:Bacillus velezensis ZY-1-1 was isolated from the larval gut of the lignocellulose-rich diet-fed scarab beetle, Holotrichia parallela, and confirmed to possess extremely high xylanase (48153.8?±?412.1 U/L) and relatively moderate cellulase activity (610.1?±?8.2 U/L). Notably, these xylanase and cellulase activities were enhanced by xylan (1.4 and 5.8-fold, respectively) and cellulose (1.1 and 3.5-fold, respectively), which indicated the hemicellulosic/cellulosic substrate-inducible lignocellulolytic activities of this strain. The complete genome of B. velezensis ZY-1-1 comprises of 3,899,251 bp in a circular chromosome with a G?+?C content of 46.6%. Among the predicted 3688 protein-coding genes, 24 genes are involved in the degradation of lignocellulose and other polysaccharides, including 8, 7 and 2 critical genes for the degradation of xylan, cellulose and lignin, respectively. This genome-based analysis will facilitate our understanding of the mechanism underlying the biodegradation of lignocellulose and the biotechnological application of this novel lignocellulolytic bacteria or related enzymes.