Project description:DNA barcoding promises to be a useful tool to identify pest species assuming adequate representation of genetic variants in a reference library. Here we examined mitochondrial DNA barcodes in a global urban pest, the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Our sampling effort generated 284 cockroach specimens, most from New York City, plus 15 additional U.S. states and six other countries, enabling the first large-scale survey of P. americana barcode variation. Periplaneta americana barcode sequences (n = 247, including 24 GenBank records) formed a monophyletic lineage separate from other Periplaneta species. We found three distinct P. americana haplogroups with relatively small differences within (?0.6%) and larger differences among groups (2.4%-4.7%). This could be interpreted as indicative of multiple cryptic species. However, nuclear DNA sequences (n = 77 specimens) revealed extensive gene flow among mitochondrial haplogroups, confirming a single species. This unusual genetic pattern likely reflects multiple introductions from genetically divergent source populations, followed by interbreeding in the invasive range. Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive reference databases in DNA barcoding studies, especially when dealing with invasive populations that might be derived from multiple genetically distinct source populations.
Project description:The cockroach Periplaneta americana is a notorious pest and threat to health worldwide, with a high reproductive ability. However, a limited amount of data is available on the developmental stage-specific transcriptomes of P. americana. To identify genes involved in developmental processes and to develop additional SSR markers in P. americana, we carried out de novo assembly of the P. americana transcriptome using Illumina sequencing. After removing low-quality sequences, we obtained 64,954,709 contigs, which were further assembled into 125,390 unigenes with an average length of 711 bp. Based on similarity searches against known proteins, we identified 48,300 unigenes based on a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). The assembled sequences were annotated according to gene descriptions, gene ontology and clusters of orthologous groups. A total of 14,195 potential SSRs were identified, and 41 of 63 randomly chosen primer pairs successfully amplified the predicted SSR markers, seven of which were polymorphic in size in P. americana. Furthermore, the Spag6 gene was confirmed to be testes specific, and the fru and RPSA genes were related to the development of the testis. This is the special report of a P. americana transcriptome obtained using Illumina sequencing technology, and a large number of molecular markers were developed.
Project description:The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is a globally invasive pest that can cause significant economic loss and threaten human health. Although it is abundant and lives in close proximity to humans, few studies have investigated the genetic diversity of P. americana. Our study analyzed 1,053 P. americana and other Periplaneta species' samples from different locations in China and the United States. A traditional tree-based method using 17 unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes of P. americana and 20 haplotypes of the other Periplaneta species accurately identified P. americana with a barcoding threshold of 5.1%. To identify the population genetic structure of P. americana, we investigated wingless gene and pooled them with obtained mtDNA data for a combined analysis. Although the genetic diversity of the USA group was relatively higher than the China group, the number of haplotypes and alleles of both groups was small. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), intraspecific phylogeny, and haplotype networks indicated that P. americana had very little global genetic differentiation. The weak geographic genetic structure might reflect the human-mediated dispersal of P. americana. Despite no apparent phylogeographic assignment of mtDNA and nuclear lineages was observed in both BI trees, the integrated COI sequence data identified four distinct P. americana haplotype groups, showing four ancient maternal lineages of P. americana in China and the United States.
Project description:The omnivorous cockroach Periplaneta americana hosts a diverse hindgut microbiota encompassing hundreds of microbial species. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the effect of diet on the composition of the P. americana hindgut microbial community. Results show that the hindgut microbiota of P. americana exhibit a highly stable core microbial community with low variance in compositions between individuals and minimal community change in response to dietary shifts. This core hindgut microbiome is shared between laboratory-hosted and wild-caught individuals, although wild-caught specimens exhibited a higher diversity of low-abundance microbes that were lost following extended cultivation under laboratory conditions. This taxonomic stability strongly contrasts with observations of the gut microbiota of mammals, which have been shown to be highly responsive to dietary change. A comparison of P. americana hindgut samples with human fecal samples indicated that the cockroach hindgut community exhibited higher alpha diversity but a substantially lower beta diversity than the human gut microbiome. This suggests that cockroaches have evolved unique mechanisms for establishing and maintaining a diverse and stable core microbiome.The gut microbiome plays an important role in the overall health of its host. A healthy gut microbiota typically assists with defense against pathogens and the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food, while dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with reduced health. In this study, we examined the composition and stability of the gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach Periplaneta americana. We found that P. americana hosts a diverse core gut microbiome that remains stable after drastic long-term changes in diet. While other insects, notably ant and bee species, have evolved mechanisms for maintaining a stable association with specific gut microbiota, these insects typically host low-diversity gut microbiomes and consume specialized diets. In contrast, P. americana hosts a gut microbiota that is highly species rich and consumes a diverse solid diet, suggesting that cockroaches have evolved unique mechanisms for developing and maintaining a stable gut microbiota.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cockroaches have been recognized as a powerful indoor allergen. Cockroach allergy can be a major factor in serious asthma and nasal allergy. Bioinformatics tools have been developed to identify potential allergens. The present study was conducted to identify potential allergens in Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus). METHODS: The study focused on the identification of potential allergens among the characterized proteins of P. americana using web-based and publicly available allergen prediction tools that follow the FAO/WHO guidelines for prediction of allergenic proteins. P. americana protein sequences were retrieved from UniProtKB. The sequences obtained were analyzed using AlgPred. The potential allergens obtained were further analyzed by SDAP for confirmation. RESULTS: Protein sequences (233 cases) of P. americana were obtained from UniProtKB out of which 25 were known allergens. Out of the remaining 208 proteins, 102 potential allergens were predicted by AlgPred. However, only 9 were found to be potential allergens after screening with SDAP. Arginine kinases, RNA polymerase II subunit, parcxpwnx02, peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase, hemocyanin subunit type I and type II, homologue of Sarcophaga proteinase and alpha amylase were confirmed to be potential allergens by SDAP. CONCLUSION: We have identified nine potential allergens in P. americana that may be used as preliminary support for further laboratory experiments.
Project description:Periplaneta americana is a notorious urban pest prevalent in human habitats; very little is known about its chemosensory mechanism. Employing the advanced next-generation sequencing technique, in the present study, we conducted transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the antennae of the adult males and females as well as their mouthparts using an Illumina platform. This resulted in the discovery of a huge number of the members of all major known chemosensory receptor families in P. americana, including 96 odorant receptors (ORs), 53 ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 33 gustatory receptors (GRs). Tissue expression profiles showed most of them mainly expressed in antennae and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the expansion in the clade distinguishing them from other functionally well-known Lepidoptera species. A high percentage of chemosensory receptor genes (ORs in particular) showing female antenna bias in mRNA expression was observed. Our results provide a basis for further investigations on how P. americana coordinates its chemosensory receptor genes in chemical communication with environments, and for development of novel pest management approaches.
Project description:The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is a vector of many pathogenic organisms associated with human diseases. Olfaction plays a crucial role in guiding cockroach behaviors and contributes to their ability to transmit pathogens. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs), abundant in the insect olfactory sensilla, are important for insect olfaction. In this study, three OBP genes, PameOBP1, 2 and 3, were cloned from P. americana. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PameOBP1, 2 and 3 belong to the Minus-C OBP, Classic OBP, and Plus-C OBP subfamilies, respectively. Expression pattern and ligand-binding analysis showed that PameOBP1 and 2 were specifically expressed in antennae, and exhibited high binding affinities (Ki < 2 ?M) to farnesene, farnesol, 2-tridecanone, and tetradecane, suggesting roles in volatile perception. Conversely, PameOBP3 was ubiquitously expressed in most of the tissues examined at high levels and displayed very weak binding affinities (Ki > 40 ?M) for all 87 ligands tested. Our study provides insights into the functional diversity of PameOBP genes and provides some volatiles that can potentially be used in behavioral interference of P. americana.
Project description:Periplaneta americana extracts (PAEs) play a crucial role in skin wound healing. However, their molecular effects and signaling pathways in regenerating tissues and cells are not clear. In this study, we refined the PAE from Periplaneta americana to investigate the mechanisms underlying skin wound healing. The human keratinocyte line HaCaT was selected and a mouse model of deep second-degree thermal burn was established for in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. PAE treatment induced the proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells and wound healing in the burn model. Furthermore, the effects of PAE on wound healing were found to depend on the Janus-activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) pathway and Smad3 activities, according to western blot analysis and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with a STAT3 inhibitor blocked the cell proliferation and migration induced by PAE. The results indicate the wound-healing function of PAE via enhanced JAK/STAT3 signaling and Smad3 activities. Our studies provide a theoretical basis underlying the role of PAE in cutaneous wound healing.