Project description:We aimed to explore the effects of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypoglycemic therapy on the salivary microbiome in periodontitis patients and identify the potential salivary micro-biomarker for the early warning of T2DM. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals (Health), periodontitis patients (P), T2DM patients, periodontitis patients with T2DM (DAP), and DAP patients treated with Metformin (Met). Samples were determined by16S rRNA gene sequencing. 29 phyla, 322 genera, and 333 species of salivary microbiome were annotated. Compared to the Health group, the P and DAP group showed a significantly higher diversity of saliva microbiota, while the T2DM and Met group had no significant difference in microbial abundance but showed a trend of increasing diversity. Other than well-known periodontitis-inducing pathogens, the proportion of Prevotella copri, Alloprevotella rava, and Ralstonia pickettii, etc. were also significantly increased in periodontitis patients with or without T2DM. After effective glycemic control, the abundance of Prevotella copri, Alloprevotella rava, Ralstonia pickettii, etc. decreased in periodontitis patients with companion T2DM. The accuracies of the classification models in differentiating Health-vs.-P, DAP-vs.-P, and T2DM-vs.-P were 100%, 96.3%, and 98.1%, respectively. Hypoglycemic therapy could reconstruct the saliva microbiota and hence improve the localized conditions of diabetes patients with periodontitis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-18 have been proposed to play important roles in periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but human data are conflicting. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of IL-17A and IL-18 in periodontitis and DM by measuring salivary and serum levels, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 49 participants with type 2 DM and 25 control subjects without type 2 DM were recruited. A periodontal screening and recording (PSR) index (0, 1-2, 3, and 4) was used to classify whether these subjects had periodontitis. Salivary and serum IL-17A and IL-18 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between these cytokines and clinical parameters. RESULTS:Salivary IL-17A levels were not significantly different between patients with DM and controls, however, the levels were significantly higher in controls with periodontitis than those without periodontitis (p = 0.031). Salivary IL-17A levels were significantly associated with the PSR index (? = 0.369, p = 0.011). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed the association of salivary IL-18 levels and fasting plasma glucose (? = 0.270, p = 0.022) whereas serum IL-18 levels were associated with HbA1C (? = 0.293, p = 0.017). No correlation between salivary and serum levels of IL-17A and IL-18 was found. CONCLUSION:Salivary IL-17A was strongly associated with periodontitis, whereas salivary IL-18 was associated with FPG and serum IL-18 was associated with HbA1C. These results suggest the role of these cytokines in periodontal inflammation and DM.
Project description:The aim of this study was to verify the incidence on the development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes with and without periodontitis after a three-year time interval.Initial sample of this follow-up study consisted of 90 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes who underwent periodontal examination. After three years, 49 women were subjected to new periodontal examination and biological, behavioral, and social data of interest were collected. Additionally, the quantification of the C-reactive protein in blood samples was performed. Fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were requested. Saliva samples were collected for quantification of interleukin 6 and 10, tumor necrosis factor α, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9.The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 18.4% and of periodontitis was 10.2%. There was no significant difference in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with and without periodontitis. It was observed impact of C-reactive protein in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it was not observed impact of periodontitis on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with previous gestational diabetes.It was not observed impact of periodontitis on the development of type 2 diabetes among women with previous gestational diabetes. The impact of C-reactive protein in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus highlights the importance of an inflammatory process in the diabetes pathogenesis.
Project description:Aims:To explore the differences in salivary BPI fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1) concentration among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with various severities of chronic periodontitis and to determine whether BPIFA1 in saliva can be used as a potential biomarker of T2DM. Methods:Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 44 subjects with T2DM and 44 without T2DM (NDM). Additionally, demographic data and general health parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body mass index (BMI), were collected. We also detected full-mouth clinical periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding index (BI), and plaque index (PLI). Salivary BPIFA1, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also detected. Results:BPIFA1 in saliva was detected at relatively high levels. T2DM subjects had decreased salivary BPIFA1 concentrations (P = 0.031). In T2DM subjects with nonperiodontitis or severe periodontitis, the level of BPIFA1 was significantly lower compared with that of NDM. Salivary TNF-? concentration displayed a similar trend to BPIFA1 in the NDM group. Conclusions:BPIFA1 protein is rich in saliva and might be used as a potential predictive biomarker of T2DM, especially in patients with severe periodontitis and nonperiodontitis. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-ROC-17010310.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an epidemic in Asia, yet clinical trials of glucose-lowering therapies often enroll predominantly Western populations. We explored the initial combination of metformin and linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Asia with marked hyperglycemia.This was a post-hoc subgroup analysis of a multinational, parallel-group clinical trial in which 316 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8.5-12.0% were randomized to double-blind oral treatment with linagliptin/metformin or linagliptin monotherapy. The primary end-point was the change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. We evaluated data for the 125 participants from Asian countries.After 24 weeks, the mean ± standard error reduction from baseline in HbA1c (mean 10.0%) was -2.99 ± 0.18% with linagliptin/metformin and -1.84 ± 0.18% with linagliptin; a treatment difference of -1.15% (95% confidence interval -1.65 to -0.66, P < 0.0001). HbA1c <7.0% was achieved by 60% of participants receiving linagliptin/metformin. The mean bodyweight change after 24 weeks was -0.45 ± 0.41 kg and 1.33 ± 0.45 kg in the linagliptin/metformin and linagliptin groups, respectively (treatment difference -1.78 kg [95% confidence interval -2.99 to -0.57, P = 0.0043]). Drug-related adverse events occurred in 9.7% of participants receiving linagliptin/metformin and 4.8% of those receiving linagliptin. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.5% and 4.8% of the linagliptin/metformin and linagliptin groups, respectively, with no severe episodes. Gastrointestinal disorders occurred in 12.9% and 12.7% of the linagliptin/metformin and linagliptin groups, respectively, with no associated treatment discontinuations.In people from Asia with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and marked hyperglycemia, the initial combination of linagliptin and metformin substantially improved glycemic control without weight gain and with infrequent hypoglycemia. Initial oral combination therapy might be a viable treatment for such individuals.
Project description:Impaired insulin activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome might differ from that seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus without polycystic ovary syndrome. This study was designed to compare the effects of treatment with metformin, saxagliptin, and their combination in newly diagnosed women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome in China.A total of 75 newly diagnosed patients from Shanghai, China with type 2 diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome were included in this randomized, parallel, open-label study. All patients received treatment for 24 weeks with metformin, saxagliptin, or their combination. Patients were allocated to one of three treatment groups by a computer-generated code that facilitated equal patient distribution of 25 patients per group. The primary outcome was a change in glycemic control and ?-cell function.A total of 63 patients completed the study (n?=?21, for each group). The reduction in hemoglobin A1c was significant in the combination group, compared to the monotherapy groups (saxagliptin vs. combination treatment vs. metformin: -?1.1 vs. -1.3 vs. -1.1%, P?=?0.016), whereas it was comparable between the metformin and saxagliptin groups (P?>?0.05). Saxagliptin, metformin, and the combination treatment significantly reduced the homeostasis model assessment- insulin resistance index and increased the deposition index (P?<?0.01 for all). However, no significant change was observed in the homeostasis model assessment- ?-cell function among the metformin and combination groups, and no significant changes were observed in the insulinogenic index among all three groups (P?>?0.05 for all). In addition, saxagliptin and metformin treatments significantly reduced body mass index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P?<?0.01 for both).Saxagliptin and metformin were comparably effective in regulating weight loss, glycemic control, and ?-cell function, improving lipid profiles, and reducing inflammation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.ChiCTR-IPR-17011120 (retrospectively registered on 2017-04-12).
Project description:In recent years, the first-line anti-diabetic drug metformin has been shown to be also useful for the treatment of other diseases like cancer. To date, few reports were about the impact of metformin on gut microbiota. To fully understand the mechanism of action of metformin in treating diseases other than diabetes, it is especially important to investigate the impact of long-term metformin treatment on the gut microbiome in non-diabetic status. In this study, we treated healthy mice with metformin for 30 days, and observed 46 significantly changed gut microbes by using the 16S rRNA-based microbiome profiling technique. We found that microbes from the Verrucomicrobiaceae and Prevotellaceae classes were enriched, while those from Lachnospiraceae and Rhodobacteraceae were depleted. We further compared the altered microbiome profile with the profiles under various disease conditions using our recently developed comparative microbiome tool known as MicroPattern. Interestingly, the treatment of diabetes patients with metformin positively correlates with colon cancer and type 1 diabetes, indicating a confounding effect on the gut microbiome in patients with diabetes. However, the treatment of healthy mice with metformin exhibits a negative correlation with multiple inflammatory diseases, indicating a protective anti-inflammatory role of metformin in non-diabetes status. This result underscores the potential effect of metformin on gut microbiome homeostasis, which may contribute to the treatment of non-diabetic diseases.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for chronic periodontitis. We investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes on the subgingival plaque bacterial composition by applying culture-independent 16S rDNA sequencing to periodontal bacteria isolated from four groups of volunteers: non-diabetic subjects without periodontitis, non-diabetic subjects with periodontitis, type 2 diabetic patients without periodontitis, and type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis. A total of 71,373 high-quality sequences were produced from the V1-V3 region of 16S rDNA genes by 454 pyrosequencing. Those 16S rDNA sequences were classified into 16 phyla, 27 classes, 48 orders, 85 families, 126 genera, and 1141 species-level OTUs. Comparing periodontally healthy samples with periodontitis samples identified 20 health-associated and 15 periodontitis-associated OTUs. In the subjects with healthy periodontium, the abundances of three genera (Prevotella, Pseudomonas, and Tannerella) and nine OTUs were significantly different between diabetic patients and their non-diabetic counterparts. In the subjects carrying periodontitis, the abundances of three phyla (Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes), two genera (Actinomyces and Aggregatibacter), and six OTUs were also significantly different between diabetics and non-diabetics. Our results show that type 2 diabetes mellitus could alter the bacterial composition in the subgingival plaque.
Project description:In recent years, several associations between common chronic human disorders and altered gut microbiome composition and function have been reported. In most of these reports, treatment regimens were not controlled for and conclusions could thus be confounded by the effects of various drugs on the microbiota, which may obscure microbial causes, protective factors or diagnostically relevant signals. Our study addresses disease and drug signatures in the human gut microbiome of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Two previous quantitative gut metagenomics studies of T2D patients that were unstratified for treatment yielded divergent conclusions regarding its associated gut microbial dysbiosis. Here we show, using 784 available human gut metagenomes, how antidiabetic medication confounds these results, and analyse in detail the effects of the most widely used antidiabetic drug metformin. We provide support for microbial mediation of the therapeutic effects of metformin through short-chain fatty acid production, as well as for potential microbiota-mediated mechanisms behind known intestinal adverse effects in the form of a relative increase in abundance of Escherichia species. Controlling for metformin treatment, we report a unified signature of gut microbiome shifts in T2D with a depletion of butyrate-producing taxa. These in turn cause functional microbiome shifts, in part alleviated by metformin-induced changes. Overall, the present study emphasizes the need to disentangle gut microbiota signatures of specific human diseases from those of medication.
Project description:Metformin constitutes first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is presumed to have lactic acidosis as a dangerous, but rare, side effect.To estimate the incidence rate of lactic acidosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as to estimate the relative risk of lactic acidosis associated with metformin treatment.This is a population-based combined cohort and case-control study among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were acutely admitted with lactic acidosis at Odense University Hospital, Denmark; in the period from 1st June 2009 to 1st October 2013. The patients included as cases were all acutely hospitalized with lactic acidosis (pH <7.35 and lactate ?2.0 mmol/l). For each case, we identified 24 age- and sex-matched controls sampled from the same cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of metformin identified by using a prescription database. Analyses included multivariable logistic regression and adjusting for predefined confounding: renal function, HbA1c, comorbidity and diabetes duration.Our cohort included 10,652 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a median age of 74 years, and 51.5% were male. During follow-up, 163 individuals were hospitalized with lactic acidosis, corresponding to an incidence rate of 391/100,000 person years. Use of metformin was not associated with lactic acidosis: adjusted odds ratio was 0.79 (95%CI 0.54-1.17).Among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the incidence rate of acute hospitalization with lactic acidosis was 391/100,000 person years. Use of metformin did not increase the risk of lactic acidosis. However, comorbidity seems to be an important risk factor.