Project description:A butcher with chronic dermatitis presented with a second episode of Streptococcus suis meningitis, 8 years after the first episode. To distinguish between reinfection and persistent carriage, we compared the two S. suis isolates using whole genome sequencing. We investigated whole genome sequences of the S. suis isolates by means of substitution rates and population structure of closely related strains in addition to available clinical information. Genome-wide analyses revealed an inserted region consisting of 12 genes in the first isolate and the calculated substitution rate between the isolates suggested infections were caused by highly similar, but unrelated strains. Continuous occupational exposure likely resulted in reinfection with S. suis in a butcher.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that infects pigs and can occasionally cause serious infections in humans. S. suis infections occur sporadically in human Europe and North America, but a recent major outbreak has been described in China with high levels of mortality. The mechanisms of S. suis pathogenesis in humans and pigs are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The sequencing of whole genomes of S. suis isolates provides opportunities to investigate the genetic basis of infection. Here we describe whole genome sequences of three S. suis strains from the same lineage: one from European pigs, and two from human cases from China and Vietnam. Comparative genomic analysis was used to investigate the variability of these strains. S. suis is phylogenetically distinct from other Streptococcus species for which genome sequences are currently available. Accordingly, approximately 40% of the approximately 2 Mb genome is unique in comparison to other Streptococcus species. Finer genomic comparisons within the species showed a high level of sequence conservation; virtually all of the genome is common to the S. suis strains. The only exceptions are three approximately 90 kb regions, present in the two isolates from humans, composed of integrative conjugative elements and transposons. Carried in these regions are coding sequences associated with drug resistance. In addition, small-scale sequence variation has generated pseudogenes in putative virulence and colonization factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:The genomic inventories of genetically related S. suis strains, isolated from distinct hosts and diseases, exhibit high levels of conservation. However, the genomes provide evidence that horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the evolution of drug resistance.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an important cause of meningitis, arthritis, and sudden death in young piglets and of meningitis in humans. A novel temperate S. suis-specific bacteriophage (?NJ2) was identified. The phage was induced from the S. suis strain NJ2 by using mitomycin C, and the whole genome sequence was determined. The ?NJ2 genome is 37,282 bp in length and contains 56 open reading frames (ORFs). While 31 ORFs (55%) encoded hypothetical proteins, other ORFs were predicted to be functional, clearly indicating the novelty of ?NJ2.
Project description:Strains of serotype 2 Streptococcus suis are responsible for swine and human infections. Different serotype 2 genetic backgrounds have been defined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). However, little is known about the genetic diversity within each MLST sequence type (ST). Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to test the hypothesis that S. suis serotype 2 strains of the ST25 lineage are genetically heterogeneous. We evaluated 51 serotype 2 ST25 S. suis strains isolated from diseased pigs and humans in Canada, the United States of America, and Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing revealed numerous large-scale rearrangements in the ST25 genome, compared to the genomes of ST1 and ST28 S. suis strains, which result, among other changes, in disruption of a pilus island locus. We report that recombination and lateral gene transfer contribute to ST25 genetic diversity. Phylogenetic analysis identified two main and distinct Thai and North American clades grouping most strains investigated. These clades also possessed distinct patterns of antimicrobial resistance genes, which correlated with acquisition of different integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). Some of these ICEs were found to be integrated at a recombination hot spot, previously identified as the site of integration of the 89K pathogenicity island in serotype 2 ST7 S. suis strains. Our results highlight the limitations of MLST for phylogenetic analysis of S. suis, and the importance of lateral gene transfer and recombination as drivers of diversity in this swine pathogen and zoonotic agent.
Project description:Streptococcus suis, a zoonotic bacterial pathogen, has negative economic impacts on both intensive swine production and human health worldwide. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis have been widely used for comprehensive classification and investigation of the genetic basis of several S. suis strains obtained from distinct hosts in different geographic areas, revealing great genetic diversity of this zoonotic pathogen. In this study, whole-genome sequences of antibiotic-resistant S. suis strains isolated from human patients (2 strains), diseased pigs (4 strains), and asymptomatic pigs (3 strains) in Thailand were compared with known genomes of 1186 S. suis strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Thai-isolated S. suis strains have close genetic relatedness to S. suis strains isolated from Canada, China, Denmark, Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States of America. The genome analysis revealed genes conferring antibiotic resistance (aad(6), ant(6)-Ia, ermB, tet(O), patB, and sat4) and gene clusters (aph(3')-IIIa and aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia) associated with aminoglycoside, macrolide, and fluoroquinolone resistance in S. suis in Thailand. This work provides additional resources for future genomic epidemiology investigation of S. suis.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is divided into 29 serotypes based on a serological reaction against the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Multiplex PCR tests targeting the cps locus are also used to determine S. suis serotypes, but they cannot differentiate between serotypes 1 and 14, and between serotypes 2 and 1/2. Here, we developed a pipeline permitting in silico serotype determination from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) short-read data that can readily identify all 29?S. suis serotypes.We sequenced the genomes of 121 strains representing all 29 known S. suis serotypes. We next combined available software into an automated pipeline permitting in silico serotyping of strains by differential alignment of short-read sequencing data to a custom S. suis cps loci database. Strains of serotype pairs 1 and 14, and 2 and 1/2 could be differentiated by a missense mutation in the cpsK gene. We report a 99 % match between coagglutination- and pipeline-determined serotypes for strains in our collection. We used 375 additional S. suis genomes downloaded from the NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) to validate the pipeline. Validation with SRA WGS data resulted in a 92 % match. Included pipeline subroutines permitted us to assess strain virulence marker content and obtain multilocus sequence typing directly from WGS data.Our pipeline permits rapid and accurate determination of S. suis serotype, and other lineage information, directly from WGS data. By discriminating between serotypes 1 and 14, and between serotypes 2 and 1/2, our approach solves a three-decade longstanding S. suis typing issue.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is a major porcine and zoonotic pathogen responsible for significant economic losses in the pig industry and an increasing number of human cases. Multiple isolates of S. suis show marked genomic diversity. Here, we report the analysis of whole genome sequences of nine pig isolates that caused disease typical of S. suis and had phenotypic characteristics of S. suis, but their genomes were divergent from those of many other S. suis isolates. Comparison of protein sequences predicted from divergent genomes with those from normal S. suis reduced the size of core genome from 793 to only 397 genes. Divergence was clear if phylogenetic analysis was performed on reduced core genes and MLST alleles. Phylogenies based on certain other genes (16S rRNA, sodA, recN, and cpn60) did not show divergence for all isolates, suggesting recombination between some divergent isolates with normal S. suis for these genes. Indeed, there is evidence of recent recombination between the divergent and normal S. suis genomes for 249 of 397 core genes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and 132 genes that were conserved between the divergent isolates and representatives of the broader Streptococcus genus showed that divergent isolates were more closely related to S. suis. Six out of nine divergent isolates possessed a S. suis-like capsule region with variation in capsular gene sequences but the remaining three did not have a discrete capsule locus. The majority (40/70), of virulence-associated genes in normal S. suis were present in the divergent genomes. Overall, the divergent isolates extend the current diversity of S. suis species but the phenotypic similarities and the large amount of gene exchange with normal S. suis gives insufficient evidence to assign these isolates to a new species or subspecies. Further, sampling and whole genome analysis of more isolates is warranted to understand the diversity of the species.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an important emerging worldwide pig pathogen and zoonotic agent with rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. Licochalcone A, used in traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Herein, a whole-genome DNA microarray was used to investigate the global transcriptional regulation of Streptococcus suis 05ZYH33 treated by subinhibitory concentration of licochalcone A. 132 genes were differentially regulated upon liochalcone A treatment, including 78 genes up-regulated and 54 genes down-regulated which included many central biological functions such as metabolism, transcription and translation. We tried to investigate the antimicrobial mechanism of licochalcone A in the aspect of bacterial cell cycle control. Our analysis indicated that licochalcone A might inhibit the growth of S. suis by controlling the replication initiation and cell division through amino acid metabolism. A cDNA microarray imprinted with 2156 genes representing about 98% of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 genome was used for transcriptome analysis. For two-sample (reference vs. test) microarray hybridization, four independent bacterial cultures from each condition were prepared as biological replicates for RNA isolation. Four dual-fluorescence-labeled cDNA probes were prepared to hybridize with four slides, respectively. Pairwise comparisons were made using dye swaps to avoid labeling bias. A ratio of mRNA levels (test/reference) was calculated for each gene. Significant changes of gene expression were identified with the SAM software. After the SAM analysis, only genes with at least 2-fold changes in expression were collected for further analysis.
Project description:Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus suis strain S10, isolated from the tonsils of a healthy pig. S. suis S10 belongs to the highly virulent serotype 2, which includes isolates that cause infectious diseases, including meningitis, in pigs and human. The genome contains a complete prophage that encodes a candidate virulence gene.
Project description:Although Streptococcus suis has attracted public attention as a major swine and human pathogen, this bacterium has also been isolated from other animals, including ruminants. However, recent taxonomic studies revealed the existence of other species that were previously identified as S. suis, and some of these isolates were reclassified as the novel species Streptococcus ruminantium. In Japan, biochemically identified S. suis is frequently isolated from diseased ruminants; however, such isolates have not yet been identified accurately, and their aetiological importance in ruminants is unclear. Therefore, to understand the importance of S. suis and S. suis-like bacteria in ruminants, we reclassified S. suis isolates from ruminants according to the updated classification and investigated their genetic diversity. Although both S. suis and S. ruminantium were isolated from healthy and diseased ruminants, most of the isolates from diseased animals were S. ruminantium, implying that S. ruminantium is more likely to be associated with ruminant disease than S. suis. However, the ruminant S. suis and S. ruminantium isolates from diseased animals were classified into diverse genotypes rather than belonging to certain clonal groups. Genome sequence analysis of 20 S. ruminantium isolates provided information about the antibiotic resistance, potential virulence, and serological diversity of this species. We further developed an S. ruminantium-specific PCR assay to aid in the identification of this bacterium. The information obtained and the method established in this study will contribute to the accurate diagnosis of ruminant streptococcal infections.