Project description:Janthinobacterium lividum is a Gram-negative bacterium able to produce violacein, a pigment with antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Janthinobacterium lividum colonizes the skin of some amphibians and confers protection against fungal pathogens. The mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. In order to identify the advantages for the bacterium to colonize amphibian skin we sequenced Janthinobacterium lividum strain MTR, a strain isolated from Cajón del Maipo, Chile. The strain has capnophilic behavior, with growth favored by high concentrations (5 %) of carbon dioxide. Its genome is 6,535,606 bp in size, with 5,362 coding sequences and a G?+?C content of 62.37 %. The presence of genes encoding for products that participate in the carbon fixation pathways (dark CAM pathways), and the entire set of genes encoding for the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle may explain the capnophilic behavior and allow us to propose that the CO2 secreted by the skin of amphibians is the signal molecule that guides colonization by Janthinobacterium lividum.
Project description:Eleven environmental samples from different sources were screened for the presence of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing bacteria by using a selective enrichment medium containing a carbapenem antibiotic and subsequently testing each isolate for production of EDTA-inhibitable carbapenemase activity. A total of 15 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing isolates, including 10 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates, 3 Chryseobacterium spp., one Aeromonas hydrophila isolate, and one Janthinobacterium lividum isolate (a species in which production of metallo-beta-lactamase activity was not previously reported), were obtained from 8 samples. In the J. lividum isolate, named JAC1, production of metallo-beta-lactamase activity was elicited upon exposure to beta-lactams. Screening of a JAC1 genomic library for clones showing a reduced imipenem susceptibility led to the isolation of a metallo-beta-lactamase determinant encoding a new member (named THIN-B) of the highly divergent subclass B3 lineage of metallo-beta-lactamases. THIN-B is most closely related (35.6% identical residues) to the L1 enzyme of S. maltophilia and more distantly related to the FEZ-1 enzyme of Legionella gormanii (27.8% identity) and to the GOB-1 enzyme of Chryseobacterium meningosepticum (24.2% identity). Sequences related to bla(THIN-B), and inducible production of metallo-beta-lactamase activity, were also detected in the J. lividum type strain DSM1522. Expression of the bla(THIN-B) gene in Escherichia coli resulted in decreased susceptibility to several beta-lactams, including penicillins, cephalosporins (including cephamycins and oxyimino cephalosporins), and carbapenems, revealing a broad substrate specificity of the enzyme. The results of this study indicated that metallo-beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are widespread in the environment and identified a new molecular class B enzyme in the environmental species J. lividum.
Project description:A light pink coloured bacterial strain ERGS5:01 isolated from glacial stream water of Sikkim Himalaya was affiliated to Janthinobacterium lividum based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and phylogenetic clustering. Whole genome sequencing was performed for the strain to confirm its taxonomy as it lacked the typical violet pigmentation of the genus and also to decipher its survival strategy at the aquatic ecosystem of high elevation. The PacBio RSII sequencing generated genome of 5,168,928 bp with 4575 protein-coding genes and 118 RNA genes. Whole genome-based multilocus sequence analysis clustering, in silico DDH similarity value of 95.1% and, the ANI value of 99.25% established the identity of the strain ERGS5:01 (MCC 2953) as a non-violacein producing J. lividum. The genome comparisons across genus Janthinobacterium revealed an open pan-genome with the scope of the addition of new orthologous cluster to complete the genomic inventory. The genomic insight provided the genetic basis of freezing and frequent freeze-thaw cycle tolerance and, for industrially important enzymes. Extended insight into the genome provided clues of crucial genes associated with adaptation in the harsh aquatic ecosystem of high altitude.
Project description:We have explored the microbial community in a nonpermafrost, cold Alaskan soil using both culture-based and culture-independent approaches. In the present study, we cultured >1000 bacterial isolates from this soil and characterized the collection of isolates phylogenetically and functionally. A screen for antibiosis identified an atypical, red-pigmented strain of Janthinobacterium lividum (strain BR01) that produced prodigiosin when grown at cool temperatures as well as strains (e.g., strain BP01) that are more typical of J. lividium, which produce a purple pigment, violacein. Both purple- and red-pigmented strains exhibited high levels of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The prodigiosin pathway cloned from J. lividium BR01 was expressed in the heterologous host, Escherichia coli, and the responsible gene cluster differs from that of a well-studied prodigiosin producer, Serratia sp. J. lividum BR01 is the first example of a prodigiosin-producer among the beta-Proteobacteria. The results show that characterization of cultured organisms from previously unexplored environments can expand the current portrait of the microbial world.
Project description:Janthinobacterium spp. are normally considered non-pathogenic, and few pathogenesis-related studies have been reported. Here, we report the first isolation of Janthinobacterium lividum in Korea as a pathogenic bacterium infecting rainbow trout. Mass mortality was observed at one rainbow trout hatchery, and dead fish were necropsied. Gram-negative, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria that grew on Cytophaga agar were isolated. A specific violet pigmentation was observed after 7 days of cultivation, and the species were characterized on the basis of the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Because no research has focused so far on the pathogenicity of these bacteria, our study was directed to their pathogenic role based on infection-induced histopathology. Examination of stained tissue sections revealed severe renal bacteraemia and tubule degeneration. Other tissue sections, including sections from the liver and the spleen, were relatively clear. The measured half-maximal lethal dose (LD50) was approximately 3 × 105 colony-forming units/fish, suggesting that this bacterium may be an opportunistic pathogen in rainbow trout fisheries. Since the bacterium commonly dwells in soil and most water for rainbow trout fisheries in Korea is supplied from ground water, the bacteria may naturally flow into the aquatic environment. Therefore, recognition of any pathogenic role of J. lividum is important for the prevention of disease in aquaculture.
Project description:We present the first two complete genomes of the Janthinobacterium lividum species, namely strains EIF1 and EIF2, which both possess the ability to synthesize violacein. The violet pigment violacein is a secondary metabolite with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antitumoral properties. Both strains were isolated from environmental oligotrophic water ponds in Göttingen. The strains were phylogenetically classified by average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis and showed a species assignment to J. lividum with 97.72% (EIF1) and 97.66% (EIF2) identity. These are the first complete genome sequences of strains belonging to the species J. lividum. The genome of strain EIF1 consists of one circular chromosome (6,373,589?bp) with a GC-content of 61.98%. The genome contains 5,551 coding sequences, 122 rRNAs, 93 tRNAs, and 1 tm-RNA. The genome of EIF2 comprises one circular chromosome (6,399,352?bp) with a GC-content of 61.63% and a circular plasmid p356839 (356,839?bp) with a GC-content of 57.21%. The chromosome encodes 5,691 coding sequences, 122 rRNAs, 93 tRNAs, and 1 tm-RNA and the plasmid harbors 245 coding sequences. In addition to the highly conserved chromosomally encoded violacein operon, the plasmid comprises a nonribosomal peptide synthetase cluster with similarity to xenoamicin, which is a bioactive compound effective against protozoan parasites.
Project description:Amphibian populations worldwide are being threatened by the disease chytridiomycosis, which is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis To mitigate the effects of B. dendrobatidis, bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria has been shown to be a promising strategy. One way to implement bioaugmentation is through indirect horizontal transmission, defined as the transfer of bacteria from a host to the environment and to another host. In addition, direct horizontal transmission among individuals can facilitate the spread of a probiotic in a population. In this study, we tested whether the antifungal bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum could be horizontally transferred, directly or indirectly, in a laboratory experiment using Lithobates clamitans tadpoles. We evaluated the ability of J. lividumto colonize the tadpoles' skin and to persist through time using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We also tested whether the addition of J. lividum affected the skin community in L. clamitans tadpoles. We found that transmission occurred rapidly by direct and indirect horizontal transmission, but indirect transmission that included a potential substrate was more effective. Even though J. lividum colonized the skin, its relative abundance on the tadpole skin decreased over time. The inoculation of J. lividum did not significantly alter the skin bacterial diversity of L. clamitans tadpoles, which was dominated by Pseudomonas Our results show that indirect horizontal transmission can be an effective bioaugmentation method. Future research is needed to determine the best conditions, including the presence of substrates, under which a probiotic can persist on the skin so that bioaugmentation becomes a successful strategy to mitigate chytridiomycosis.