Project description:Next generation sequencing (NGS) allows parallel sequencing of multiple genes at a very high depth of coverage. The need to analyze a variety of targets for diagnostic/prognostic/predictive purposes requires multi-gene characterization. Multi-gene panels are becoming standard approaches for the molecular analysis of solid lesions. We report a custom-designed 128 multi-gene panel engineered to cover the relevant targets in 22 oncogene/oncosuppressor genes for the analysis of the solid tumors most frequently subjected to routine genotyping. A total of 1695 solid tumors were analyzed for panel validation. The analytical sensitivity is 5%. Analytical validation: (i) Accuracy: sequencing results obtained using the multi-gene panel are concordant using two different NGS platforms and single-gene approach sequencing (100% of 83 cases); (ii) Precision: consistent results are obtained in the samples analyzed twice with the same platform (100% of 20 cases). Clinical validation: the frequency of mutations identified in different tumor types is consistent with the published literature. This custom-designed multi-gene panel allows to analyze with high sensitivity and throughput 22 oncogenes/oncosuppressor genes involved in diagnostic/prognostic/predictive characterization of central nervous system tumors, non-small-cell lung carcinomas, colorectal carcinomas, thyroid nodules, pancreatic lesions, melanoma, oral squamous carcinomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To present the development of the first custom gene panel for the diagnosis of male and female infertility in Latin America. METHODS:We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel that assesses genes associated with infertility. The panel targeted exons and their flanking regions. Selected introns in the CFTR gene were also included. The FMR1 gene and Y chromosome microdeletions were analyzed with other recommended methodologies. An in-house developed bioinformatic pipeline was applied for the interpretation of the results. Clear infertility phenotypes, idiopathic infertility, and samples with known pathogenic variants were evaluated. RESULTS:A total of 75 genes were selected based on female (primary ovarian insufficiency, risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, recurrent pregnancy loss, oocyte maturation defects, and embryo development arrest) and male conditions (azoospermia, severe oligospermia, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia). The panel designed was used to assess 25 DNA samples. Two of the variants found were classified as pathogenic and enable the diagnosis of a woman with secondary amenorrhea and a man with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Targeted NGS assay metrics resulted in a mean of 180X coverage, with more than 98% of the bases covered ?20X. CONCLUSION:Our custom gene sequencing panel designed for the diagnosis of male and female infertility caused by genetic defects revealed the underlying genetic cause of some cases of infertility. The panel will allow us to develop more precise approaches in assisted reproduction.
Project description:The inevitable switch from standard molecular methods to next-generation sequencing for the molecular profiling of tumors is challenging for most diagnostic laboratories. However, fixed validation criteria for diagnostic accreditation are not in place because of the great variability in methods and aims. Here, we describe the validation of a custom panel of hotspots in 24 genes for the detection of somatic mutations in non-small cell lung carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma and malignant melanoma starting from FFPE sections, using 14, 36 and 5 cases, respectively. The targeted hotspots were selected for their present or future clinical relevance in solid tumor types. The target regions were enriched with the TruSeq approach starting from limited amounts of DNA. Cost effective sequencing of 12 pooled libraries was done using a micro flow cell on the MiSeq and subsequent data analysis with MiSeqReporter and VariantStudio. The entire workflow was diagnostically validated showing a robust performance with maximal sensitivity and specificity using as thresholds a variant allele frequency >5% and a minimal amplicon coverage of 300. We implemented this method through the analysis of 150 routine diagnostic samples and identified clinically relevant mutations in 16 genes including KRAS (32%), TP53 (32%), BRAF (12%), APC (11%), EGFR (8%) and NRAS (5%). Importantly, the highest success rate was obtained when using also the low quality DNA samples. In conclusion, we provide a workflow for the validation of targeted NGS by a custom-designed pan-solid tumor panel in a molecular diagnostic lab and demonstrate its robustness in a clinical setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a hematological neoplasm of the stem lymphoid cell of the B lineage, characterized by the presence of genetic alterations closely related to the course of the disease. The number of alterations identified in these patients grows as studies of the disease progress, but in clinical practice, the conventional techniques frequently used are only capable of detecting the most common alterations. However, techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), are being implemented to detect a wide spectrum of new alterations that also include point mutations. METHODS:In this study, we designed and validated a comprehensive custom NGS panel to detect the main genetic alterations present in the disease in a single step. For this purpose, 75 B-ALL diagnosis samples from patients previously characterized by standard-of-care diagnostic techniques were sequenced. RESULTS:The use of the custom NGS panel allowed the correct detection of the main genetic alterations present in B-ALL patients, including the presence of an aneuploid clone in 14 of the samples and some of the recurrent fusion genes in 35 of the samples. The panel was also able to successfully detect a number of secondary alterations, such as single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) in 66 and 46 of the samples analyzed, respectively, allowing for further refinement of the stratification of patients. The custom NGS panel could also detect alterations with a high level of sensitivity and reproducibility when the findings obtained by NGS were compared with those obtained from other conventional techniques. CONCLUSIONS:The use of this custom NGS panel allows us to quickly and efficiently detect the main genetic alterations present in B-ALL patients in a single assay (SNVs and insertions/deletions (INDELs), recurrent fusion genes, CNVs, aneuploidies, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with pharmacogenetics). The application of this panel would thus allow us to speed up and simplify the molecular diagnosis of patients, helping patient stratification and management.
Project description:Detection of melanoma-associated mutations using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from plasma is a potential alternative to using genomic DNA from invasive tissue biopsies. In this study, we developed a custom melanoma next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel which includes 123 amplicons in 30 genes covering driver and targetable mutations and alterations associated with treatment resistance. Analysis of a cohort of 74 stage III and IV treatment-naïve melanoma patients revealed that sensitivity of ctDNA detection was influenced by the amount of circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) input and stage of melanoma. At the recommended cfDNA input quantity of 20 ng (available in 28/74 patients), at least one cancer-associated mutation was detected in the ctDNA of 84% of stage IV patients and 47% of stage III patients with a limit of detection for mutant allele frequency (MAF) of 0.2%. This custom melanoma panel showed significant correlation with droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and provided a more comprehensive melanoma mutation profile. Our custom panel could be further optimized by replacing amplicons spanning the TERT promoter, which did not perform well due to the high GC content. To increase the detection rate to 90% of stage IV melanoma and decrease the sensitivity to 0.1% MAF, we recommend increasing the volume of plasma to 8 mL to achieve minimal recommended cfDNA input and the refinement of poorly performing amplicons. Our panel can also be expanded to include new targetable and treatment resistance mutations to improve the tracking of treatment response and resistance in melanoma patients treated with systemic drug therapies.
Project description:We wanted to implement an NGS strategy to globally analyze hereditary cancer with diagnostic quality while retaining the same degree of understanding and control we had in pre-NGS strategies. To do this, we developed the I2HCP panel, a custom bait library covering 122 hereditary cancer genes. We improved bait design, tested different NGS platforms and created a clinically driven custom data analysis pipeline. The I2HCP panel was developed using a training set of hereditary colorectal cancer, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and neurofibromatosis patients and reached an accuracy, analytical sensitivity and specificity greater than 99%, which was maintained in a validation set. I2HCP changed our diagnostic approach, involving clinicians and a genetic diagnostics team from panel design to reporting. The new strategy improved diagnostic sensitivity, solved uncertain clinical diagnoses and identified mutations in new genes. We assessed the genetic variation in the complete set of hereditary cancer genes, revealing a complex variation landscape that coexists with the disease-causing mutation. We developed, validated and implemented a custom NGS-based strategy for hereditary cancer diagnostics that improved our previous workflows. Additionally, the existence of a rich genetic variation in hereditary cancer genes favors the use of this panel to investigate their role in cancer risk.
Project description:Buffy coat PBMC RNA expression was tested using a custom Nanostring probe panel, to identify general immune and glucocorticoid receptor-associated immune genes. Overall design: PMBCs (buffy coat) samples were collected using Lympoprep density gradient protocol, total RNA extracted with miRVana kit. Custom 250-plex "ImmunoGC" panel selected genes for: 1) reported glucocorticoid immune responsiveness, 2) immune-cell type specific expression, 3) microRNA processing, and 4) putative stress-associated biomarkers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Biologically active vitamin D has an important regulatory role within the genome. It binds the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in order to control the expression of a wide range of genes as well as interacting with the epigenome to modify chromatin and methylation status. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several human diseases including end-stage renal disease. METHODS:This article describes the design and testing of a custom, targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) panel for selected vitamin D associated genes. Sequencing runs were used to determine the effectiveness of the panel for variant calling, to compare efficiency and data across different sequencers, and to perform representative, proof of principle association analyses. These analyses were underpowered for significance testing. Amplicons were designed in two pools (163 and 166 fragments respectively) and used to sequence two cohorts of renal transplant recipients on the Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM)™ and Ion S5™ XL desktop sequencers. RESULTS:Coverage was provided for 43.8 kilobases across seven vitamin D associated genes (CYP24A1, CUBN, VDR, GC, NADSYN1, CYP27B1, CYP2R1) as well as 38 prioritised SNPs. Sequencing runs provided sufficient sequencing quality, data output and validated the effective library preparation and panel design. CONCLUSIONS:This novel, custom-designed, validated panel provides a fast, cost effective, and specific approach for the analysis of vitamin D associated genes in a wide range of patient cohorts. This article does not report results from a controlled health-care intervention.
Project description:The custom-designed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel amplified 231 autosomal SNPs in one PCR reaction and subsequently sequenced with massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology and Ion Torrent personal genome machine (PGM). SNPs were chosen from SNPforID, IISNP, HapMap, dbSNP, and related published literatures. Full concordance was obtained between available MPS calling and Sanger sequencing with 9947A and 9948 controls. Ten SNPs (rs4606077, rs334355, rs430046, rs2920816, rs4530059, rs1478829, rs1498553, rs7141285, rs12714757 and rs2189011) with low coverage or heterozygote imbalance should be optimized or excluded from the panel. Sequence data had sufficiently high coverage and gave reliable SNP calling for the remaining 221 loci with the custom MPS-SNP panel. A default DNA input amount of 10 ng per reaction was recommended by Ampliseq technology but sensitivity testing revealed positive results from as little as 1 ng input DNA. Mixture testing with this panel is possible through analysis of the F MAR (frequency of major allele reads) values at most loci with enough high coverage depth and low level of sequencing noise. These results indicate the potential advantage of the custom MPS-SNP assays and Ion Torrent PGM platform for forensic study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Somatic genetic testing is rapidly becoming the standard of care in many adult and pediatric cancers. Previously, the standard approach was single-gene or focused multigene testing, but many centers have moved towards broad-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels. Here, we report the laboratory validation and clinical utility of a large cohort of clinical NGS somatic sequencing results in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of a wide range of pediatric cancers. METHODS:Subjects were accrued retrospectively at a single pediatric quaternary-care hospital. Sequence analyses were performed on 367 pediatric cancer samples using custom-designed NGS panels over a 15-month period. Cases were profiled for mutations, copy number variations, and fusions identified through sequencing, and their clinical impact on diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy was assessed. RESULTS:NGS panel testing was incorporated meaningfully into clinical care in 88.7% of leukemia/lymphomas, 90.6% of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and 62.6% of non-CNS solid tumors included in this cohort. A change in diagnosis as a result of testing occurred in 3.3% of cases. Additionally, 19.4% of all patients had variants requiring further evaluation for potential germline alteration. CONCLUSIONS:Use of somatic NGS panel testing resulted in a significant impact on clinical care, including diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning in 78.7% of pediatric patients tested in our institution. Somatic NGS tumor testing should be implemented as part of the routine diagnostic workup of newly diagnosed and relapsed pediatric cancer patients.