Project description:<i>Halobacterium</i> sp. strain NRC-34001 is a red, extremely halophilic archaeon isolated in Canada in 1934. Single-molecule real-time sequencing revealed a 2.3-Mbp genome with a 2-Mbp chromosome and two plasmids (235 kb and 43 kb). The genome encodes all conserved core haloarchaeal groups (cHOGs) and a highly acidic proteome.
Project description:<i>Halobacterium</i> sp. strain BOL4-2 was isolated from an Andean salt flat, Salar de Uyuni, in Bolivia. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing revealed a 2.4-Mbp genome with a 2.0-Mbp chromosome and four plasmids (2 to 299 kb). Its isolation from an environment experiencing multiple extremes makes the strain interesting for astrobiology.
Project description:An extremely halophilic archaeon, <i>Halobacterium</i> sp. GSL-19, was isolated from the north arm of Great Salt Lake in Utah. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing was used to establish a GC-rich 2.3-Mbp genome composed of a circular chromosome and 2 plasmids, with 2,367 predicted genes, including 1 encoding a CTAG-methylase widely distributed among <i>Haloarchaea</i>.
Project description:The extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium NRC-1 can switch from aerobic energy production (energy from organic compounds) to anaerobic phototrophy (energy from light) by induction of purple membrane biogenesis. The purple membrane is made up of multiple copies of a 1:1 complex of bacterioopsin (Bop) and retinal called bacteriorhodopsin that functions as a light-driven proton pump. A light- and redox-sensing transcription regulator, Bat, regulates critical genes encoding the biogenesis of the purple membrane. To better understand the regulatory network underlying this physiological state, we report a systems approach using global mRNA and protein analyses of four strains of Halobacterium sp.: the wild-type, NRC-1; and three genetically perturbed strains: S9 (bat+), a purple membrane overproducer, and two purple membrane deficient strains, SD23 (a bop knockout) and SD20 (a bat knockout). The integrated DNA microarray and proteomic data reveal the coordinated coregulation of several interconnected biochemical pathways for phototrophy: isoprenoid synthesis, carotenoid synthesis, and bacteriorhodopsin assembly. In phototrophy, the second major biomodule for ATP production, arginine fermentation, is repressed. The primary systems level insight provided by this study is that two major energy production pathways in Halobacterium sp., phototrophy and arginine fermentation, are inversely regulated, presumably to achieve a balance in ATP production under anaerobic conditions.
Project description:A new potent halophilic protease producer, Halobacterium sp. strain LBU50301 was isolated from salt-fermented fish samples (budu) and identified by phenotypic analysis, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Thereafter, sequential statistical strategy was used to optimize halophilic protease production from Halobacterium sp. strain LBU50301 by shake-flask fermentation. The classical one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach determined gelatin was the best nitrogen source. Based on Plackett-Burman (PB) experimental design; gelatin, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl and pH significantly influenced the halophilic protease production. Central composite design (CCD) determined the optimum level of medium components. Subsequently, an 8.78-fold increase in corresponding halophilic protease yield (156.22 U/mL) was obtained, compared with that produced in the original medium (17.80 U/mL). Validation experiments proved the adequacy and accuracy of model, and the results showed the predicted value agreed well with the experimental values. An overall 13-fold increase in halophilic protease yield was achieved using a 3 L laboratory fermenter and optimized medium (231.33 U/mL).
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequences of <i>Halobacterium</i> sp. strains KA-4 and KA-6. These extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from a Triassic halite deposit in Northern Ireland. Based on 16S sequence identity, they were deemed to be closely related strains of Halobacterium noricense but with some notable phenotypic differences.
Project description:We report the complete sequence of an extreme halophile, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, harboring a dynamic 2,571,010-bp genome containing 91 insertion sequences representing 12 families and organized into a large chromosome and 2 related minichromosomes. The Halobacterium NRC-1 genome codes for 2,630 predicted proteins, 36% of which are unrelated to any previously reported. Analysis of the genome sequence shows the presence of pathways for uptake and utilization of amino acids, active sodium-proton antiporter and potassium uptake systems, sophisticated photosensory and signal transduction pathways, and DNA replication, transcription, and translation systems resembling more complex eukaryotic organisms. Whole proteome comparisons show the definite archaeal nature of this halophile with additional similarities to the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and other bacteria. The ease of culturing Halobacterium and the availability of methods for its genetic manipulation in the laboratory, including construction of gene knockouts and replacements, indicate this halophile can serve as an excellent model system among the archaea.
Project description:As part of a comprehensive post-genomic investigation of the model archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, we used whole genome DNA microarrays to compare transcriptional profiles of cells grown anaerobically via arginine fermentation versus cells either respiring aerobically in the presence of oxygen or anaerobically using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as a terminal electron acceptor. In the study presented here, a consecutively performed series of experiments were performed to examine the effects of regulator deletions (dmsR, bat) and oxygen limitations of Haloarchaeal cells. Microarrays were used to acquire expression profiles of a total of 2484 genes, leading to the successful identification of affected genes.
Project description:As part of a comprehensive postgenomic investigation of the model archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1, we used whole-genome DNA microarrays to compare transcriptional profiles of cells grown under anaerobic or aerobic conditions. When anaerobic growth supported by arginine fermentation was compared to aerobic growth, genes for arginine fermentation (arc) and anaerobic respiration (dms), using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the terminal electron acceptor, were highly upregulated, as was the bop gene, required for phototrophic growth. When arginine fermentation was compared to anaerobic respiration with TMAO, the arc and dms genes were both induced with arginine, while TMAO induced the bop gene and major gas vesicle protein (gvpAC) genes specifying buoyant gas vesicles. Anaerobic conditions with either TMAO or arginine also upregulated the cba genes, encoding one of three cytochrome oxidases. In-frame deletion of two COG3413 family regulatory genes, bat and dmsR, showed downregulation of the bop gene cluster and loss of purple membrane synthesis and downregulation of the dms operon and loss of anaerobic respiration capability, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis identified additional regulatory and sensor genes that are likely involved in the full range of cellular responses to oxygen limitation. Our results show that the Halobacterium sp. has evolved a carefully orchestrated set of responses to oxygen limitation. As conditions become more reducing, cells progressively increase buoyancy, as well as capabilities for phototrophy, scavenging of molecular oxygen, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.